A man and the spectacles егэ ответы

Задание в2 рекомендуемое время выполнения задания - 8 минут. установите соответствие заголовков a g текстам 16. занесите свои ответы

Задание В2

Рекомендуемое время выполнения задания — 8 минут.

Установите соответствие заголовков A — G текстам 1—6. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую букву только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний.

1. Safe, comfortable and, above all, green. Electric-powered cars will not produce any substances which are dangerous for either people or the environment. In 10—20 years all cars will have their own built-in computers. These computers will help choose the best way to go and avoid accidents. You can even sit back and let the computer do the driving!
2. As you know personal computers use a lot of power. In fact, with their printers and monitors, computers in the USA use each year as much electricity as the whole state of Oregon. Not to waste electricity, new «green» computers are being developed by more than a hundred personal computer firms in the USA. When left on but unused for more than a few minutes, they go down to a standby, using 80 per cent less energy. At a command the PCs return to full power.
3. Nowadays, people working in offices use computers, which contain hundreds of documents. Do you know how much space these documents would take up, if they were printed on paper? They’d occupy whole rooms! In many offices computers are linked in a network. This way, employees can exchange information and messages without moving from their tables.
4. Technology has allowed more and more people to work from the place where they live. Using a modem on a telephone line connected to their computer, everyone can be linked to the company computer. In this way, they don’t waste so much time, because they don’t have to go to the office every day. It also means less pollution in the atmosphere caused by transport.
5. Good-bye, pencils! Farewell, sheets of paper! These days cartoons are being made with a computer. The first-ever cartoon to be created by computer was «Toy Story» produced by Steve Jobs. A typical Walt Disney cartoon usually needs up to 600 designers. «Toy Story» was made using only 100. So, like so much of modern life, today’s cinema seems to be falling more and more into the hands of the computer.
6. If someone asked you about the negative aspects of a computer game, probably the first thing that would come to your mind is that it isolates a person from other people. Now the first virtual reality computer game has appeared which can be played in a group of 6 people at the same time. The game is called «The Loch Ness Expedition». Each player is given a role in the underwater expedition. Players have to cooperate to achieve the goal.

Задание В3

Рекомендуемое время выполнения задания — 7 минут.

Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски 1— 6 частями предложений А — G. Одна из частей в списке А — G лишняя. Перенесите ответы в таблицу.

Before the invention of the internal combustion engine, the only successful human flights were in balloons filled with hot air or a gas like hydrogen which is «lighter than air». But balloons cannot be properly controlled in flight 1) _______ . Not until man had invented a powered, «heavier than air» machine could he claim to have conquered the skies. Steam-engines were often tried in the nineteenth century, but they were much too heavy in relation to the power they produced. It was the lighter, more compact petrol engine 2) _______ .
Wilbur and Orville Wright were bicycle-makers from Dayton in the USA. In 1903, after carefully studying the problems of flight, they fitted a wooden glider with a twelve horse-power petrol engine and two propellers driven by bicycle chains. On a cold morning in December at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, they became the first men to fly a «heavier than air» machine.
The British were slow to respond to the new invention. Five years went by 3) _______ . In 1909, when the «Daily Mail» offered ?1000 for the first man to fly the Channel, it was won by a Frenchman, Louis, Bleroits. However, when the First World War broke out, five years later, the vast majority of the population had not yet seen an aeroplane. The military possibilities of aircraft were quickly realized, 4) _______ .
For the first time planes were mass produced from standard parts.
The extent of the progress made during the war was shown in 1919, when two Royal Air Force officers, John Alcock and Arthur Whitten-Brown, made the first flight across the Atlantic. They covered the 1890 miles from Newfoundland to Ireland at an average speed of 118 m.p.h., battling all the way against fog, ice and storms. At one point, Brown had to climb on the wings to hack away ice with a knife. In August of the same year, the world’s first daily air service began, 5) _______ . By 1923 Croydon Airport, in Surrey, was handling up to thirty cross-channel flights a day. A high standard of safety and reliability was achieved, 6) _______ .
A. carrying goods and passengers between London and Paris.
B. so the war led to a rapid development of aviation.
C. that lasted only fifty-nine seconds.
D. that held the key to success.
E. although the journey was slow and bumpy.
F. before the first powered flight was made in England.
G. because they are at the mercy of the wind and air-currents.

Задания A15-A21

Рекомендуемое время выполнения задания — 15 минут.
Прочитайте текст и выполните задания А15 — А21, обводя цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую номеру выбранного вами варианта ответа.

Our province has not always been a dead place, entirely unknown to fame, as it is today. Long ago, the people from all the farms within 20 miles brought us their crops of grain to grind. To right and left, one could see nothing but the sails turning about in the wind above the huge pine trees, and long strings of little donkeys loaded with bags climbing the hills and stretching out along the roads.
On Sundays, we went to the mills in groups. The millers treated us to wine, and we danced until it was pitch-dark. Those mills, you see, were the pleasure and wealth of our province. Then some Frenchman from Paris got the idea of setting up a steam flourmill on the road to Tarascon, and the people fell into the habit of sending their grain there, and the poor windmills were left without work. We saw no more strings of little donkeys. No more wine! No more dancing!
But one little mill continued to turn bravely on its hill. That was Master Cornille’s mill. The Master was an old miller who was crazy over his trade. Then the old man shut himself up in his mill, and lived alone like a wild beast. He wouldn’t even keep with him his granddaughter Vivette, a child of 15. Since the death of her parents, she had no one but her grandfather in the world. The poor child had to hire herself out among the farms for the harvest or the olive picking. And yet, her grandfather seemed to love the child dearly. He often traveled eight miles on foot to see her at the farm where she was working. When he was with her, he would pass hours at a time gazing at her and weeping. They were tears of grief for the girl.
There was something in Master Cornille’s life we couldn’t understand. For a long time, no one in the village had brought him any grain, and yet the sails of his windmill were always in motion as before. In the evenings, people met the old miller on the roads, driving before him his donkey loaded with fat bags of flour. If any one asked where so much work could come from, he would put a finger to his lips and answer gravely: «Hush! I am working for export.» No one could get anything more from him. Everyone had his own explanation of Master Cornille’s secret. But the general report was that there were even more bags of silver in the mill than bags of grain.
After a while, however, everything came to light. One day I found out that my eldest boy and Vivette had fallen in love with each other. So I went up to the mill to say a word to the grandfather. Ah! You should have seen how he received me! It was impossible for me to get him to open his door. I explained my reasons through the keyhole. The old man didn’t give me time to finish, but shouted that if I was in such a hurry to get my boy married, I could go and look for a girl at the steam mill. The blood went to my head when I heard such rough talk.
I returned to inform the children of my treatment. They decided to speak to the grandfather themselves. When they reached the mill, Master Cornille had gone out. The door was locked, but the old fellow had left his ladder outside. Suddenly it occurred to the children to go in by the window.
The main room of the mill was empty. Not a sack, not a particle of grain, not the slightest trace of the silver which had been spoken a lot about, not the slightest trace of flour on the walls or on the spider webs. The lower room had the same look of poverty and neglect: a few rags, a crust of bread, and in a cor-ner three sacks, which had burst, with rubbish and plaster sticking out. That was Master Cornille’s secret! It was that plaster that he paraded at night on the roads, to save the honor of the mill and to make people think that he made flour there. Poor mill! Poor Cornille! Long ago the steam millers had robbed him of his last customer. The sails still turned, but the mill ground nothing.
A15 According to the narrator, the province used to be famous for
1) rich harvests of grain.
2) large territories of pine woods.
3) a large number of windmills.
4) a great number of little donkeys.

A16 When a steam mill was set up on the road to Tarascon
1) the farmers felt resentful and angry.
2) the windmills were pulled down.
3) the local millers refused to work for its owner.
4) the people’s lifestyle became less enjoyable.

A17 Vivette worked on farms because
1) she had to provide for herself.
2) she had no wish to live with her grandfather.
3) her grandfather needed money badly.
4) she preferred picking olives to working at a mill.

A18 Master Cornille would look at Vivette for hours and cry because he felt
1) pity for the girl.
2) lonely without her.
3) sorry he couldn’t see her often enough.
4) that people were cruel to her.

A19 People of the village were curious to know
1) if the Master was really working for export.
2) where the Master got the grain to have his mill working.
3) how many bags of silver there were in his mill.
4) what the bags on his donkey were full of.

A20 The Master talked to the narrator roughly because he might have been
1) afraid that the narrator would get into his mill.
2) angry with the narrator for using the steam mill.
3) sure that the narrator’s son was a bad match for Vivette.
4) in a hurry to finish his work.

A21 When the young couple got into the mill they realized that the Master
1) was a miser who lived on a crust of bread.
2) used his mill as a hiding place for his silver.
3) was an untidy and careless person.
4) was suffering because the days of windmills had passed.

Тест ЕГЭ-2011 по английскому языку.

Демонстрационный вариант (II).

(Ответы в конце теста)

1. ЧТЕНИЕ (30 минут). Задания В2, В3, А15-А21 

B2. Прочитайте тексты.

1. Her Majesty’s Government, in spite of its name, derives its authority and power from its party representation in Parliament. Parliament is housed in the Palace of Westminster, once a home of the monarchy. Like the monarchy, Parliament is an ancient institution, dating from the middle of the thirteenth century. Parliament is the seat of British democracy, but it is perhaps valuable to remember that while the House of Lords was created in order to provide a council of the nobility for the king, the Commons were summoned originally in order to provide the king with money.

2. The reigning monarch is not only head of state but symbol of the unity of the nation. The monarchy is Britain’s oldest secular institution, its continuity for over a thousand years broken only once by a republic that lasted a mere eleven years (1649-60). The monarchy is hereditary, the succession passing automatically to the oldest male child, or in the absence of males to the oldest female offspring of the monarch. In law the monarch is head of the executive and of the judiciary, head of the Church of England, and commander-in-chief of the armed forces.

3. The dynamic power of Parliament lies in its lower chamber. Of its 650 members, 523 represent constituencies in England, 38 in Wales, 72 in Scotland and 17 in Northern Ireland. There are only seats in the Commons debating chamber for 370 members, but except on matters of great interest, it is unusual for all members to be present at any one time. Many MPs find themselves in other rooms of the Commons, participating in a variety of committees and meetings necessary for an effective parliamentary process/

4. Britain is a democracy, yet its people are not, as one might expect in a democracy, constitutionally in control of the state. The constitutional situation is an apparently contradictory one. As a result of a historical process the people of Britain are subjects of the Crown, accepting the Queen as the head of the state. Yet even the Queen is not sovereign in any substantial sense since she receives her authority from Parliament, and is subject to its direction in almost all matters. This curious situation came about as a result of a long struggle for power between the Crown and Parliament during the sixteenth and the seventeenth centuries.

5. Her Majesty’s Government governs in the name of the Queen, and its hub, Downing Street, lies in Whitehall, a short walk from Parliament. Following a general election, the Queen invites the leader of the majority party represented in the Commons, to form a government on her behalf. Government ministers are invariably members of the House of Commons, but infrequently members of the House of Lords are appointed. All government members continue to represent “constituencies” which elected them/

6. Each parliamentary session begins with the “State Opening of Parliament”, a ceremonial occasion in which the Queen proceeds from Buckingham Palace to the Palace of Westminster where she delivers the Queen’s Speech from her throne in the House of Lords. Her speech is drafted by her government, and describes what the government intends to implement during the forthcoming session. Leading members of the Commons may hear the speech from the far end of the chamber, but are not allowed to enter the House of Lords.

7.  The upper chamber of Parliament is not democratic in any sense at all. It consists of four categories of peer. The majority are hereditary peers, a total of almost 800, but of whom only about half take an active interest in the affairs of the state. A smaller number, between 350 and 400, are “life” peers – an idea introduced in 1958 to elevate to the peerage certain people who rendered political or public service to the nation. The purpose was not only to honour but also to enhance the quality of business done in the Lords.

Установите соответствие между заголовками A – Н и текстами 1 – 7. Используйте каждую букву только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний. 

A) The House of Commons

B) Parliamentary Procedure

C) The House of Lords

D) Westminster

E) The System of Government

F) Parliamentary Committees

G) Whitehall

H) The Crown

B3. Прочитайте текст.

‘Second Stonehenge’ discovered near original

Archaeologists have discovered evidence of what they believe was a second Stonehenge located a little more than a mile away from the world-famous prehistoric monument.
The new find on the west bank of the river Avon has been called «Bluestonehenge», after the colour of the 25 Welsh stones of 1___________________.

Excavations at the site have suggested there was once a stone circle 10 metres in diameter and surrounded by a henge – a ditch with an external bank, according to the project director, Professor Mike Parker Pearson, of the University of Sheffield.

The stones at the site were removed thousands of years ago but the sizes of the holes in 2  _________________ indicate that this was a circle of bluestones, brought from the Preseli mountains of Wales, 150 miles away.

The standing stones marked the end of the avenue 3  __________________, a 1¾-mile long processional route constructed at the end of the Stone Age. The outer henge around the stones was built about 2400BC but arrowheads found in the stone circle indicate the stones were put up as much as 500 years earlier.

Parker Pearson said his team was waiting for results of radiocarbon dating
4 __________________  whether stones currently in the inner circle of Stonehenge were originally located at the other riverside construction.

Pearson said: «The big, big question is when these stones were erected and when they were removed – and when we get the dating evidence we can answer both those questions.».

He added: «We speculated in the past 5 ____________________ at the end of the avenue near the river. But we were completely unprepared to discover that there was an entire stone circle. Another team member, Professor Julian Thomas, said the discovery indicated 6  _________________ was central to the religious lives of the people who built Stonehenge. «Old theories about Stonehenge that do not explain the evident significance of the river will have to be rethought,» he said. Dr Josh Pollard, project co-director from the University of Bristol, described the discovery as «incredible».

Заполните пропуски 1 – 6 частями предложeний, обозначенными буквами A – G. Одна из частей в списке А – G лишняя.

A) which could reveal

B) which they stood

C) which it was once made up

D) that this stretch of the river Avon

E) that there might have been something

F) that it should be considered as integral part

G) that leads from the river Avon to Stonehenge

Прочитайте текст и выполните задания А15 – А21. В каждом задании выберите вариант ответа: 1, 2, 3 или 4.

Getting What He Deserved?

There were seven or eight of us in the line, waiting to pay the cashier for our lunches. We were all in a hurry because that’s the way of the American business-day lunch. At the front of the line there was a pretty woman with a small boy of about eight. He was a cute little fellow wearing black jeans, white sneakers and a blue pullover sweater. A shock of dark hair fell over his eyes. He looked very much like his mother. The boy had a charming face with chiseled features but he was depressed.

As the woman fumbled in her purse, looking for money to pay her check, the kid noticed a display of candy bars beside the cash register and immediately wanted one.

“You can’t have any candy”, said his mother. “You had pie with your lunch”. She took out her handkerchief, then put it back and went on fumbling in her purse.

“But I want some candy”, said the kid. His tone was surprisingly insistent. Almost aggressive.

The mother continued her search for money in her purse, and the kid continued to whine about the candy. Then he began to stamp his feet and shout.

           The rest of us in line were beginning to get fidgety. We bunched a little closer together and several folks began mumbling under their breath. “Ought to snatch him bald”, said one man quietly.

The kid by now was reaching for the candy display in open opposition to his mother. She grabbed his arm and pulled it away, but not before he clutched a Snickers bar in his hand.

“Put it back”, she said.

“No!” shouted the child. It was an arrogant “No!”.

The line bunched even more closely together, and the man who had suggested snatching the kid bald appeared ready to do so himself. So much for the kid’s shock of dark hair, I thought.

But the mother moved suddenly and with purpose. She paid the cashier, took back her change and dropped it into her purse. Then with one quick motion, she grabbed hold of the child’s pullover sweater and lifted him off the floor. The moment his sneakers came back to earth, she turned his back toward her and began flailing him. A look of disbelief came across the kid’s face. His eyes filled with tears. He tried to break away but that made his mother flail him again.

When she had finished administering the punishment, she turned the child around and pointed a finger squarely in his sobbing face. With a voice strong and certain, she said, “The next time I tell you do something, young man, will you do it?”

The child looked at the floor. Meekly and sincerely, he replied, “Yes, ma’am.”

The mother turned to go. The child returned the Snickers bar without further hesitation and marched dutifully out behind her.

The people in a line broke into spontaneous applause.

“Did the kid deserve the punishment he had? What would I do if I were his mother? She may have been absolutely right for all I know. I have no children. I have no right to argue with the mother” I thought. “There is nothing I can do but wait. Perhaps the best way to get an idea of normal behavior of children is to get married and raise a few”.

А15. The people in the cafe were all in a hurry because

1) they had to buy their lunch far away from the office.

2) they wanted to be the first in line to pay for the food.

3) it was the way they normally behaved at lunch time.

4) they had to buy their lunch before the cashier left for her lunch.

А16. The woman was fumbling in her purse because she wanted to

1) pay for her food.

2) buy a candy bar.

3) find her phone.

4) pay with a check.

А17. The mother would not let the child buy a candy bar because she

1) didn’t have enough money to pay for it.

2) was unreasonably strict with the little kid.

3) thought that he had enough candy already.

4) didn’t trust the quality of the candy from the display.

А18. The boy was persistent in getting what he wanted and the people in the line

1) supported him.

2) started to show irritation.

3) started to shout at the kid.

4) remained indifferent to the incident.

А19. Judging by the child’s reaction to the punishment we can say that

1) it did not teach him anything.

2) he wasn’t used to being spanked.

3) he was indifferent to being spanked.

4) he wasn’t ready to change his behavior.

А20. The people in a line broke into spontaneous applause because the child

1) was forced to obey.

2) managed to get his way.

3) Had already eaten the candy bar.

4) manipulated his mother skillfully.

А21. Reflecting on the incident the narrator thought that

1) The mother had overreacted.

2) The mother was right in her reaction.

3) he/she wanted his/her own children badly.

4) One should be a parent to have a right to judge.


Прочитайте приведённый ниже текст. Преобразуйте слова, напечатанные заглавными буквами в конце предложений, так чтобы они грамматически соответствовали содержанию текста. Заполните пропуски полученными словами. Каждый пропуск соответствует отдельному заданию из группы B4 – B10.

Where did basketball come from?


Basketball is now a major sport in the USA. Basketball __________________ by Dr. James Naismith at Springfield, Massachusetts, in 1891. Basketball is a game played between two teams of five players, in which each team tries to win points by throwing a ball through a net.



Basketball is a very spectator-oriented sport. It is the __________________ most popular game in the USA. People enjoy both watching and playing it.



There__________________ many basketball centers in cities and towns of every state. They do not often produce sportsmen or sportswomen who are successful in world basketball championships but they help young people to keep fit and look athletic.



Basketball __________________ by men and women at all levels, from the professional level to high schools and clubs.



One of the __________________  and the most famous basketball teams is the Harlem Globetrotters, formed in 1926. It has a lot of fans in the USA, Canada, Great Britain, Australia, and New Zealand.



This team __________________ crowds of fans especially for final or championship matches. One can see photos of its members in newspapers and magazines all over the USA.



The name of the team __________________   a symbol of a fast and furious play.


Прочитайте приведенный ниже текст. Преобразуйте, если необходимо, слова, напечатанные заглавными буквами в конце предложений, так, чтобы они грамматически и лексически соответствовали содержанию текста. Заполните пропуски полученными словами. Каждый пропуск соответствует отдельному заданию из группы В11 – В16.

The Opening Night


The Phantom of the Opera, Cats, Mama Mia… They are all stage musicals. The opening night of a new musical is always a  ________________ event.



After years of __________________ and weeks of rehearsals the production has to be ready for the public and the critics.



First nights usually start earlier than the regular  __________________ so that the critics can write their reviews in time to include them in the next morning’s newspapers.



The critics are the most __________________ people on the first night because their opinions will either help make the show a hit or force it to close.



The rest of the audience on the first night is usually made up of friends of the cast and famous celebrities. The celebrities attract newspaper __________________ and help give the musical maximum publicity.



There will also be some angels there who will __________________ be more nervous than the performers. And then after the curtain has come down and the show is over, there’s the opening night party.


Прочитайте текст с пропусками, обозначенными номерами А22–А28. Эти номера соответствуют заданиям A22–A28, в которых представлены возможные варианты ответов. Укажите номер выбранного вами варианта ответа.

The Fruitcake Special 

I was a chemist at the Amos Cosmetics factory in New Jersey, USA, trying to design a new perfume when it happened. I never thought I would discover something quite so amazing by  A22______. Not me. I was only 23 and it was my second year at the factory. I liked my job very much but I was not a lucky person. I had come straight from the university then, but now I was a chemist in one of the biggest factories in New Jersey. It was an important position to have and meant lots of work 

I was A23______ out all the usual mixes of flowers and things- just as I always did — when I decided to throw in a A24______ of the fruitcake Momma had packed for my lunch. I don’t know why I did it –just did it. I put it into the mix with all the other things.

I thought it A25______ nice, but there was nothing special about it, so I put the bottle into my handbag. I couldn’t give something like that to my boss. After all, I was a chemist and my job was to make perfumes in the proper A26______.

If I told him how I made this one he would tell me not to be a silly girl.  Later, he would probably A27______ a joke about it to his friends at the golf club.


It was my boss, David Amos. He happened to be walking past where I worked. I couldn’t A28______ being nervous. He was fairly sure of his good looks and never spoke to ordinary-looking girls like me. I was thrilled.

В каждом задании выберите один ответ.


1) incident

2) accident

3) event

4) occasion


1) producing

2) making

3) trying

4) doing


1) piece

2) lump

3) bunch

4) pinch


1) heard

2) touched

3) tasted

4) smelled


1) way

2) road

3) path

4) method


1) Do

2) produce

3) make

4) have


1) hold

2) feel

3) keep

4) help


Раздел 1

Раздел 2




was invented












is played












has become
































Вы услышите 6 высказываний. Установите соответствие между высказываниями каждого говорящего A—F и утверждениями, данными в списке 1—7. Используйте каждое утверждение, обозначенное соответствующей цифрой, только один раз. В задании есть одно лишнее утверждение. Вы услышите запись дважды. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу.


Вы услышите диалог. Определите, какие из приведённых утверждений А—G соответствуют содержанию текста (1 — True), какие не соответствуют (2 — False) и о чём в тексте не сказано, то есть на основании текста нельзя дать ни положительного, ни отрицательного ответа (3 — Not stated). Занесите номер выбранного вами варианта ответа в таблицу. Вы услышите запись дважды.

A The Armoury is situated near the Kremlin.

B Originally the Kremlin was wooden.

C New walls and towers of red brick were built in the 15th century.

D The Trinity Gate leads to Red Square.

E The monument to Minin and Pozharsky is the oldest in Moscow.

F The monument to Alexander Pushkin is not far from the monument to Yuri Dolgoruky.

G You can watch ballets in the Maly Theatre.


Соответствие диалогу

Вы услышите интервью с автором детективных романов. В заданиях 3—9 запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2 или 3, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа. Вы услышите запись дважды.


Which benefit of trees has not been mentioned by the speaker?
1) Protection from flooding.
2) Protection from the sun’s rays.
3) Protection from precipitation.
Ответ: .


The smell of pines in the forest is the result of trees releasing

1) oxygen.

2) carbon dioxide.

3) other gasses.

Ответ: .


Scientists want to study how
1) gasses are released by trees into the atmosphere.
2) organic compounds form tiny particles.
3) these particles influence the climate.
Ответ: .


Cloud droplets are unable to

1) absorb solar radiation.

2) reflect solar radiation.

3) scatter solar radiation.

Ответ: .


According to scientists, cloud droplets influence

1) the size of the cloud.

2) the colour of the cloud.

3) the movement of the cloud.

Ответ: .


The actual formation of the clouds is governed
1) only by the formation of cloud droplets.
2) primarily by the formation of cloud droplets.
3) by several different processes.
Ответ: .


A new way of addressing the problem of global warming is by reducing the amount of
1) greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere.
2) the sun’s radiation getting through the atmosphere.
3) the sun’s radiation reflected by the clouds.
Ответ: .

Раздел 2. ЧТЕНИЕ


Установите соответствие между заголовками 1—8 и текстами A—G. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний.

1. Exotic Pets
2. Going Back in Time
3. Small Screen Addiction
4. Body Language

5. Massive Destruction
6. Buried Treasure
7. Reason for Extinction
8. Intelligent Enemies

A. The VLT (Very Large Telescope) is the world’s largest telescope and it is taking scientists further back to the Big Bang than they ever thought possible. In other words, the VLT is a kind of a time machine, giving astronomers detailed views of events that took place in the earliest days of the cosmos. One day, we will have a much clearer picture of how our planet was born.

B. The latest development in the debate amongst scientists about what killed the prehistoric dinosaurs is the suggestion that acid rain was the cause. Some geologists suggest that a large meteor hitting the earth at 65 kilometres per second would have led to strongly acidic rain falling all over the world. This idea is fascinating but it would mean the dinosaurs would all have died within a very short time.

C. In 1948, a British farmer discovered an interesting lump of metal while ploughing his field. At first he thought the metal bits were parts of an old bed. Then more ‘parts of old beds’ turned up and the farmer took them to the local museum. ‘But these bits are priceless!’ exclaimed the keeper of the museum. ‘They are Iron Age jewellery and coins!’ Over the next 40 years, more and more items were found in the same field.

D. Rats may have had a bit of a hard time over the years but these days lots of people are forgetting about guinea-pigs and hamsters and are buying rats instead. Domestic rats aren’t the same as the ones that run around rubbish bins — they’re actually quite cute. They are very intelligent and can be trained like dogs. They come in different colours and — a big bonus — they will eat anything!

E. In Western cultures, people look each other in the eye during a conversation to show interest and trust, but in many Asian countries, it’s rude to look people in the eye, especially a superior such as a teacher. One of the most basic and powerful signals is when a person crosses his or her arms across the chest. This can indicate that a person is putting up an unconscious barrier between themselves and others.

F. Earthquakes happen all the time in all parts of the world but we don’t notice most of them because they are small. However, big earthquakes are really dangerous. They can make buildings fall down, set off landslides and do other deadly things. The highest death toll caused by an earthquake was in China in 1556, when at least 830,000 people died.

G. According to scientists, Americans watch more TV on average than any other nationality. In fact, many people, particularly children, sit for 35 hours or more per week glued to the box. What’s wrong with watching all that TV? Studies have linked it to everything from obesity to aggression in children not to mention that it puts your mind into a sort of sedated state. Habitual television watching, over long periods of time, has been known to cause depression, and anger.


Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A—F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1—7. Одна из частей в списке 1—7 лишняя. Занесите цифру, обозначающую соответствующую часть предложения, в таблицу.

The Man Booker Prize for Fiction is awarded every year for the best original full-length novel written by a writer from the Commonwealth or the Republic of Ireland. It aims to represent the greatest in contemporary literature and promotes the finest in fiction by rewarding the best book of the year. The prize was originally called the Booker-McConnell Prize, A ____________. However, it was better-known as simply the ‘Booker Prize’. In 2002, the Man Group became the sponsor and they chose the new name, keeping ‘Booker’.

Publishers can submit books for consideration for the prize, but the judges can also ask for books to be submitted B ____________. Firstly, the Advisory Committee gives advice if there have been any changes to the rules for the prize. Then it selects the people C ____________. The judging panel changes every year and usually a person is only a judge once.

Great efforts are made to ensure that the judging panel is balanced in terms of gender and professions within the industry. A writer, a critic, an editor and an academic are chosen along with a well-known person from wider society. However, when the panel of judges has been finalized, they are left to make their own decisions D ____________. The Man Booker judges include critics, writers and academics E ____________. The influence of the prize is so great that the winner will almost certainly see the considerable sales increase, in addition to the £50,000 F ____________. In 1992, a Booker Russian Novel Prize was introduced.

  1. without any further interference from the prize sponsor
  2. so as to maintain the consistent quality of the prize
  3. who will judge the books
  4. so as to sell them
  5. which was the name of the company that sponsored it
  6. that comes with the prize
  7. they think should be included

Прочитайте текст и выполните задания 12—18. В каждом задании запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа.

‘Have you written a letter to the Froplinsons?’ asked Egbert.

‘No,’ said Janetta, with a note of tired defiance in her voice; ‘I’ve written eleven letters today expressing surprise and gratitude for sundry unmerited gifts, but I haven’t written to the Froplinsons yet.’

‘Someone will have to do it,’ said Egbert.

‘I don’t dispute the necessity, but I don’t think that someone should be me,’ said Janetta. ‘I wouldn’t mind writing a letter of angry recrimination or heartless satire to some suitable recipient. In fact, I should rather enjoy it, but I’ve come to the end of my capacity for expressing servile amiability. Eleven letters today and nine yesterday, all couched in the same strain of ecstatic thankfulness: really, you can’t expect me to sit down to another. There is such a thing as writing oneself out.’

‘I’ve written nearly as many,’ said Egbert, ‘and I’ve had my usual business correspondence to get through, too. Besides, I don’t know what it was that the Froplinsons sent us.’ ‘A William the Conqueror calendar,’ said Janetta, ‘with a quotation of one of his great thoughts for every day in the year.’

‘Impossible,’ said Egbert; ‘he didn’t have three hundred and sixty-five thoughts in the whole of his life, or, if he did, he kept them to himself.’

‘Well, it was William Wordsworth, then,’ said Janetta; ‘I know William came into it somewhere.’

‘That sounds more probable,’ said Egbert; ‘well, let’s collaborate on this letter and get it done. I’ll dictate, and you can scribble it down. ‘Dear Mrs. Froplinson, thank you and your husband so much for the very pretty calendar you sent us. It was very good of you to think of us.’ ’

‘You can’t possibly say that,’ said Janetta, laying down her pen. ‘We sent them something on the twenty-second,’ said Janetta, ‘so they simply had to think of us. There was no getting away from it.’

‘What did we send them?’ asked Egbert gloomily.

‘Bridge-markers,’ said Janetta, ‘in a cardboard case, with some inanity about ‘digging for fortune with a royal spade’ emblazoned on the cover. The moment I saw it in the shop I said to myself ‘Froplinsons’ and to the attendant ‘How much?’ When he said ‘Ninepence,’ I gave him their address, jabbed our card in, paid tenpence or elevenpence to cover the postage, and thanked heaven. With less sincerity and infinitely more trouble they eventually thanked me.’

‘The Froplinsons don’t play bridge,’ said Egbert.

‘One is not supposed to notice social deformities of that sort,’ said Janetta; ‘it wouldn’t be polite. Besides, what trouble did they take to find out whether we read Wordsworth with gladness? For all they knew or cared we might be frantically embedded in the belief that all poetry begins and ends with John Masefield, and it might infuriate or depress us to have a daily sample of Wordsworthian products flung at us.’

‘Well, let’s get on with the letter,’ said Egbert. ‘How clever of you to guess that Wordsworth is our favourite poet.’

Again Janetta laid down her pen.

‘Do you realise what that means?’ she asked; ‘a Wordsworth booklet next Christmas, and another calendar the Christmas after, with the same problem of having to write suitable letters of thankfulness. No, the best thing to do is to drop all further allusion to the calendar and switch off on to some other topic.’

‘But what other topic?’

‘Oh, something like this: ‘What do you think of the New Year Honours List? A friend of ours made such a clever remark when he read it.’ Then you can stick in any remark that comes into your head; it needn’t be clever. The Froplinsons won’t know whether it is or isn’t.’

‘We don’t even know on which side they are in politics,’ objected Egbert; ‘and anyhow you can’t suddenly dismiss the subject of the calendar. Surely there must be some intelligent remark that can be made about it.’

‘Well, we can’t think of one,’ said Janetta wearily; ‘the fact is, we’ve both written ourselves out.’

There was a long silence, the forlorn silence of those who are bereft of hope and have almost ceased to care. Then Egbert started from his seat with an air of resolution. The light of battle was in his eyes.

‘Let me come to the writing-table,’ he exclaimed; ‘I’m going to write to the editor of every enlightened and influential newspaper in the Kingdom, I’m going to suggest that there should be a sort of epistolary Truce of God during the festivities of Christmas and New Year. From the twenty-fourth of December to the third or fourth of January it shall be considered an offence against good sense and good feeling to write or expect any letter or communication that does not deal with the necessary events of the moment. Answers to invitations, arrangements about trains, renewal of club subscriptions, and, of course, all the ordinary everyday affairs of business, sickness, engaging new cooks, and so forth, these will be dealt with in the usual manner as something inevitable. But all the devastating accretions of correspondence, incident to the festive season, these should be swept away to give the season a chance of being really festive.’

‘But you would have to make some acknowledgment of presents received,’ objected Janetta; ‘otherwise people would never know whether they had arrived safely.’

‘Of course, I have thought of that,’ said Egbert; ‘every present that was sent off would be accompanied by a ticket bearing the date of dispatch and the signature of the sender, and some conventional hieroglyphic to show that it was intended to be a Christmas or New Year gift; there would be a counterfoil with space for the recipient’s name and the date of arrival, and all you would have to do would be to sign and date the counterfoil, add a conventional hieroglyphic indicating heartfelt thanks and gratified surprise, put the thing into an envelope and post it.’

‘It sounds delightfully simple,’ said Janetta wistfully, ‘but people would consider it too perfunctory.’

‘It is not a bit more perfunctory than the present system,’ said Egbert; ‘I have only the same conventional language of gratitude at my disposal with which to thank dear old Colonel Chuttle for his perfectly delicious Stilton, which we shall devour to the last morsel, and the Froplinsons for their calendar, which we shall never look at. So you see the present system of acknowledgment is just as perfunctory and conventional as the counterfoil business would be, only ten times more tiresome and brain-racking.’

‘Your plan would certainly bring the idea of a Happy Christmas a step nearer realisation,’ said Janetta. ‘Meanwhile, what am I to say to the Froplinsons?’

(Adapted from ‘Down Pens’ by H. H. Munro)


Egbert and Janetta were writing

1) application letters.
2) thank-you letters.

3) letters of recrimination.
4) letters of complaint.

Ответ: .


Egbert and Janetta didn’t want to write a letter to the Froplinsons because they
1) had both written themselves out.
2) didn’t like this couple.
3) didn’t know what the Froplinsons had sent them.
4) had a lot of work to do.
Ответ: .


Janetta liked her present to the Froplinsons because it was

1) expensive and useless.
2) cheap and useless.

3) expensive and useful.
4) cheap and useful.

Ответ: .


Janetta didn’t want to mention that Wordsworth was their favourite poet because
1) she actually didn’t like his poems.
2) her favourite poet was John Masefield.
3) the Froplinsons would send them new Wordsworth-related presents.
4) she didn’t want the Froplinsons to know the truth.
Ответ: .


Janetta considered the Froplisons to be

1) stupid.

2) clever.

3) kind.

4) mean.

Ответ: .


Egbert suggested that at Christmas people should
1) stop writing letters at all.
2) put off all the everyday affairs of business.
3) not make any acknowledgment of received presents.
4) send counterfoils instead of thank-you letters.
Ответ: .


Janetta considered a new system

1) absolutely impossible.
2) too perfunctory.

3) easy to implement.
4) totally unacceptable.

Ответ: .


Прочитайте приведённый ниже текст. Преобразуйте, если необходимо, слова, напечатанные заглавными буквами в конце строк, обозначенных номерами 19—25, так, чтобы они грамматически соответствовали содержанию текстов. Заполните пропуски полученными словами. Каждый пропуск соответствует отдельному заданию из группы 19—25.

Обратите внимание, что по правилам ЕГЭ ответы нужно писать без пробелов и других знаков, например, правильный ответ ‘have done’ нужно будет записать как ‘havedone’, иначе ваш ответ не засчитается.

Swimming Pools


The first heated swimming pool by Gaius Maecenas of Rome in the first century BC.



Swimming pools became popular in Britain in the beginning of the 19th century. By 1837, London authorities six indoor pools with diving boards.



The surviving swimming club in the world is the Arlington Baths Club in Glasgow. It is still an active club and continues to own its original Victorian building with a large pool.



After the start of modern Olympic Games in 1896, the popularity of swimming pools off. Nowadays there are lots of different swimming pools, both public and private.



Most enjoy swimming and swimming pools with their wave-making machines, water slides and tropical vegetation are something unique for them.



If they could, kids to spend their entire summer in the swimming pool.



However, not everyone their own backyard pool.


Прочитайте приведённый ниже текст. Образуйте от слов, напечатанных заглавными буквами в конце строк, обозначенных номерами 26—31, однокоренные слова так, чтобы они грамматически и лексически соответствовали содержанию текста. Заполните пропуски полученными словами. Каждый пропуск соответствует отдельному заданию из группы 26—31.

Waste Management


Waste affects our environment — everything that surrounds us including the air, water, land, plants, and man-made things. We need a healthy environment for our own health and .



The waste we create has to be controlled to be sure that it does not harm our environment and our health.



So waste management is very important.



Waste reduction and recycling have a wide range of environmental benefits and promote public awareness and personal for the waste we create.



The best place to start making a is our home. Learn how you can reduce, reuse, and recycle materials to decrease household waste.



If we recycle what we can’t use any more, we save resources because the materials replace some of the natural resources including water and energy, which we use to make new products.


Прочитайте текст с пропусками, обозначенными номерами 32—38. Эти номера соответствуют заданиям 32—38, в которых представлены возможные варианты ответов. Запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа.

Globalization and Communication Growth

The 21st century has 32____ in a new era in man’s ongoing quest for a better life and a better world. For the first time in history, we can now claim to live in ‘One World.’ Globalization has removed many of the gaps that have existed between and among nations. While the physical divide is still present, the 33____ of the Information Highway on how we communicate and live in the present day is simply staggering. Rapid improvements in information technology have allowed us to exchange information and communicate almost everywhere, anywhere, and anytime.

Globalization, as a general term, is best understood as the spread of ideas about the environment, democracy, human rights, and less complicated issues like fashion and fads. Global exchange is now taking place as the market of ideas, culture, and beliefs expand through the use of technology. The nature of business and how it is done has also improved by 34____ and bounds because of globalization.

An example of the remarkable effects of globalization is the invention of the telephone and the television. Television has enabled young people and adults to have the ability to share cultural and ethnic experiences with others. Telephones have also greatly improved communication. Gone are the weeks and even months of waiting for a letter. Anybody can talk to anyone who has another phone 35____ of distance or location on the planet. With the aid of satellites, 3rd generation phones allow us to make a phone call, send a video, or even receive an e-mail. These 36____ in communication have revolutionized business, commerce, and even the personal lives and relationships of millions of people.

Because of the electronic media, vast amounts of important information can reach any parts of the globe in 37____ time. Business establishments, whether big or small, are using the Internet in many ways to build or expand their company’s growth. With the ever improving technology come new markets, high 38____ for products, and also greater competition. Making investments in information and communication technology is now a must for any business enterprise.


1) started

2) began

3) ushered

4) launched

Ответ: .


1) cause

2) impact

3) consequences

4) result

Ответ: .


1) bonds

2) gaps

3) jumps

4) leaps

Ответ: .


1) regardless

2) despite

3) notwithstanding

4) because

Ответ: .


1) breakbeats

2) breakdowns

3) breakouts

4) breakthroughs

Ответ: .


1) any

2) no

3) none of

4) some

Ответ: .


1) access

2) claim

3) demand

4) rise

Ответ: .

Ваш результат: пока 0.

Далее вы можете набрать еще 40 баллов. Автоматически это проверить нельзя, поэтому сделайте реалистичный прогноз о том, сколько бы вы смогли набрать баллов, и получите ваш итоговый результат ЕГЭ.

Если возник вопрос по ответу, в котором вы ошиблись, можете задать его в комментариях.

Раздел 4. ПИСЬМО

Для ответов на задания 39 и 40 используйте бланк ответов № 2. Черновые пометки можно делать прямо на листе с заданиями, или можно использовать отдельный черновик. При выполнении заданий 39 и 40 особое внимание обратите на то, что Ваши ответы будут оцениваться только по записям, сделанным в БЛАНКЕ ОТВЕТОВ № 2. Никакие записи черновика не будут учитываться экспертом. Обратите внимание также на необходимость соблюдения указанного объёма текста. Тексты недостаточного объёма, а также часть текста, превышающая требуемый объём, не оцениваются. Запишите сначала номер задания (39, 40), а затем ответ на него. Если одной стороны бланка недостаточно, Вы можете использовать другую его сторону.

You have received a letter from your English-speaking pen friend Jessica who writes:

… By the way, we are doing a project at college on the fashion industry in different countries. It would be nice if you could tell me what clothes are popular with teenagers in Russia. Do you have any special fashion for teens? What kind of clothes do you prefer? Why?

As for me, I bought a new dress yesterday …

Write a letter to Jessica.
In your letter
— answer her questions
— ask 3 questions about her tastes in clothes
Write 100 — 140 words.
Remember the rules of letter writing.

За это задание вы можете получить 6 баллов максимум.

Comment on the following statement.

Lots of people enjoy celebrating holidays. However, for some people a holiday is just a day off.

What is your attitude to celebrations? Which way of celebrating holidays do you find more enjoyable?

Write 200 — 250 words.

— make an introduction (state the problem)
— express your personal opinion and give 2—3 reasons for your opinion
— express an opposing opinion and give 1—2 reasons for this opposing opinion
— explain why you don’t agree with the opposing opinion
— make a conclusion restating your position

За это задание вы можете получить 14 баллов максимум.


— За 1,5 минуты нужно подготовиться и в следующие 1,5 минуты выразительно прочитать текст вслух — 1 балл.
— Составление 5 вопросов на основе ключевых слов. На подготовку отводится 1,5 минуты, затем каждый вопрос надо сформулировать в течение 20 секунд — 5 баллов.
— 3 фотографии. Нужно выбрать 1 и описать ее по предложенному тут же в задании плану за 3,5 минуты — 7 баллов.
— 2 картинки. Нужно сравнить их, описать сходства и различия, объяснить, почему выбранная тематика близка выпускнику, за 3,5 минуты — 7 баллов.



Установите соответствие тем 1 — 8 текстам A — G. Занесите свои ответы в соответствующее поле справа. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании одна тема лишняя.

1. Thoughtless behaviour

2. Benefits of private business

3. Too complicated to use

4. Bad for business

5. Science brings hope

6. Road incident

7. More parking places

8. Personal choice

A. City centre parking is expensive and many important roads are now closed to private transport. This would be fine — if public transport was cheap and convenient, but it is neither. The result is that people are avoiding the city centre so restaurants, cinemas and shops are closing.

B. The motorcyclist drew along side and I heard abusive language as he banged on the car roof. I immediately locked the car doors and tried to work out what was wrong. He then shouted that I had almost collided with him. Truth to tell — I didn’t see him until now. I tried to apologize but he wouldn’t listen.

C. They now have cars that run on electricity, solar power and even on vegetable oil. New petrol engines are super efficient and make less harmful emissions. More people are working from home because of advances in communication technology and computer security. At last we have some grounds for optimism.

D. As she approached the traffic lights the driver in front of her tipped out a mess of fast food boxes, polystyrene cups and chip bags. She pressed her horn angrily. «Why don’t people consider what they do», she wondered helplessly. «Someone will have to clear this up and we all have to pay for it.»

E. Sarah has worked for herself more than 10 years now. It had been risky but now her interior decoration business is a success. She loves being her own boss. It constantly amazes her that her friends in big corporations believe they have job security. How can they think this way when these companies are constantly firing people to make bigger profits?

F. It was not easy deciding. It never is when buying a new car. Reliability and comfort are big issues as are fuel economy, maintenance and so forth. A car has to feel right as well. Price and value for money are also critical. But in the end Ralph made his decision confident that it was just the right one for him.

G. Jane studied the small print. To make a successful insurance claim for her accident she needed so much information. Several complicated forms took hours to complete. She then needed three independent quotations, a witness statement, and a police statement and after everything she still had to pay the first $500 anyway.



Установите соответствие тем 1 — 7 текстам A — F. Занесите свои ответы в соответствующее поле справа. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании одна тема лишняя.


1. the chocolate consumed today is made

2. that chocolate, eaten in moderation

3. central and southern America for

4. of the world’s most popular flavours

5. hand contains no cocoa solids and

6. cacao seeds are intensely bitter and have

7. many countries worldwide at

Chocolate is made from a number of raw and processed foods produced from the seeds of tropical cacao trees. Cacao has been cultivated in A ___ last 3000 years.

For most of this time it was made into a drink called, in translation — «bitter water». This is because В ___ to be fermented to develop a palatable flavour. After fermentation the beans are dried and roasted and the shell is removed to produce cacao nibs. These are then ground and liquefied into chocolate liquor.

The liquor is then processed into cocoa solids or cocoa butter. Pure chocolate contains primarily cocoa solids and butter in different proportions. Much of С ___ with added sugar.

Milk chocolate is sweetened chocolate that additionally contains either milk powder or condensed milk. White chocolate on the other D ___ is therefore not a true chocolate.

Chocolate contains theobromine and phenethylamine which have physiological effects on the body. It is similar to serotonin levels in the brain. Scientists claim E ___ , can lower blood pressure. Recently, dark chocolate has also been promoted for its health benefits.

But pet owners should remember that the presence of theobromine makes it toxic to cats and dogs. Chocolate is now one F ___ , although 16 of the top 20 chocolate consuming countries are in Europe. Also interesting is that 66% of world chocolate is consumed between meals.

Прочитайте текст и выполните задания 12—18, обводя цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую номеру выбранного вами варианта ответа.

Keeping busy

The public school in town served a number of purposes. Education, of course, was one. It offered a curriculum in general education, manual education, and preparatory education for college. Its music and sports programs provided entertainment to the school and its patrons. And the school served as an agency of social cohesion, bringing the community together in a common effort in which everyone took pride.

The sports program was the center of gravity of extra-curricular activities. The school fielded junior and senior varsity teams in football, basketball and track. Any young man with enough coordination to walk and chew gum at the same time could find a place on one of those teams. In addition, sports generated a need for pep rallies, cheerleaders, a band, homecoming activities, parades and floats, a homecoming queen and maids of honor, and a sports banquet. It also mobilized parents to support the activities with time and money.

There were any number of clubs a student might join. Some were related to academics, like the Latin Club, the Spanish Club, and the Science Club. Others brought together students interested in a profession, like the Future Farmers of America, the Future Homemakers of America, the Future Teachers of America, and the Pre-Med Club. Still others were focused on service. The Intra-Mural Council, made up of girls (who had been neglected in the regular sports program), organized tournaments in a variety of sports for girls. The Library Club worked to improve library holdings and equipment. The Pep Club organized homecoming activities, parades and athletic banquets.

The Student Council, including representatives from each class, was elected by the student body after a heated political campaign with banners and speeches. It represented student interests to the administration and the school board. It approved student clubs that were formed, helped resolve discipline problems, and played a role in setting codes of conduct and dress. For the most part, it was a docile body that approved the policies of the administration.

The Journalism Club published a monthly newspaper of school news and opinion. It was financed by selling ads to business men in the community.

Another group planned and published the school Yearbook, which was a pictorial record of the student body, the year’s activities, sports, and achievements. The Yearbook staff sponsored a beauty contest, pictured outstanding students selected by the faculty, and a Who’s Who of popular and talented students selected by the student body.

Churches in town, of which there were many, sponsored their own activities for youth; and the community sponsored a recreation center, called Teen Town, for chaperoned Saturday night dances each week. Community and school leaders seemed determined to keep the youth of the town busy and out of trouble. In a small Southern town in the Bible Belt where very few students had access to a car, which had been voted dry and in which no alcohol was sold, they succeeded marvelously well.



The first paragraph implies that the public school

1. was more than just an educational institution.

2. offered the best educational curriculum.

3. had developed close ties with a college.

4. preferred students talented in sports and music.



Which of the following is true about the school’s sports programme?

1. Ability to chew gum while walking was required of all participants.

2. The sportsmen were supposed to join the school band.

3. It was run on the money collected from parents.

4. It played the most important role outside the curriculum.



The word ‘others’, in paragraph 3, refers to…

1. academics.

2. school clubs.

3. students.

4. professionals.



Which of the following is NOT the function of the Student Council?

1. Representation of students’ interests.

2. Helping administration in discipline issues.

3. Formation of school clubs.

4. Participation in conduct code setting.



The money for the advertisements from local businessmen was used to pay for

1. the Journalism Club.

2. the publication of a monthly newspaper.

3. the publication of the school Yearbook.

4. financing the beauty contest.



Saturday night dances were sponsored by

1. the recreation center.

2. churches.

3. the school.

4. the community.



Who does the title ‘Keeping Busy’ refer to?

1. young people.

2. school council.

3. town churches.

4. community.

Ответы на тесты ММУ

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Выберите один ответ:

a. man vs himself

b. man vs fate

c. man vs nature

d. man vs society

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ПРЕДМЕТ: Английская и американская литература (1/1)



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