A person of many talents огэ ответы

1 вы проводите информационный поиск в ходе выполнения проектной работы. определите, в каком из текстов a f содержатся ответы

1) Вы проводите информационный поиск в ходе выполнения проектной работы. Определите, в каком из текстов A — F содержатся ответы на интересующие Вас вопросы 1 — 7. Один из вопросов останется без ответа.

1. Who do we worship on July, 8?
2. What do Russians traditionally cook during Butter Week?
3. What are the two most popular holidays in Russia?
4. Why is the celebration in St. Petersburg called ‘Scarlet Sails’?
5. What do we usually do during the first week of each year?
6. Why do Russian students have parties on January, 25?
7. When do people jump over a bonfire?

A. Of all the public holidays in Russia New Year is the first in popularity. Russian New Year traditions resemble those of the Western Christmas including Christmas Tree, Father Frost and family celebrations. Another popular family winter holiday is Old New Year which is New Year according to the Julian Calendar. It ends the New Year holiday cycle which also includes Christmas.

B. On January, 25 the day of Saint Tatiana is celebrated. On this day in 1755 the Russian Empress Elizabeth signed a decree establishing Moscow State University. So, Saint Tatiana was declared the patron saint of students, and St. Tatiana’s Day has come to be celebrated as Students’ Day. This day usually coincides with the end of examinations when students may go out partying all day long and all night through.

C. One of the Russian folk holidays is Maslenitsa or Butter Week which is celebrated during the eighth week before Easter. During this week people arrange snowball fights, go sledding and take part in some other activities. In Slavic mythology it is a celebration of the coming end of winter. The shape of pancakes, which are made on this day, is the praise to the sun. Pancakes are still the most traditional food of Maslenitsa.

D. The night of Ivan Kupala is celebrated by joyful rituals, songs and bonfires. People believe that the highest jumper over a bonfire is the luckiest. In the past Mothers used to burn the shirts of their sick children in those bonfires to put an end to their diseases. Fern was believed to bloom at midnight. No man could pick up this flower, but if you saw it any wish would come true.

E. The Russian analogue of Valentine’s Day is Peter and Fevronia Day which is celebrated on July, 8. It focuses, however, on family love. Peter and Fevronia are historical figures. Peter was the Murom prince who married a peasant woman after she had cured him of a disease. They were deeply in love with each other. They died on the same day and they were buried together.

F. Scarlet Sails Tradition which began in the late sixties of the 20th century is a famous event of the White Nights Festival. It is associated with a love story told by the Russian writer Alexander Green in the book with the same title. You can see a ship with scarlet sails navigate along St. Petersburgh’s main waterway. Together with fireworks and concerts it symbolizes freedom from “schools and rules” and entering “an adult life”.


2) Прочитайте текст и запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2 или 3, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа.

Показать текст. ⇓

Autumn is the best time to see Moscow and its suburbs.
1) True
2) False
3) Not stated


3) Прочитайте текст и запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2 или 3, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа.

Показать текст. ⇓

Napoleon’s army left the battlefield as a lot of its soldiers had been killed.
1) True
2) False
3) Not stated


4) Прочитайте текст и запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2 или 3, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа.

Показать текст. ⇓

The Battle of Borodino is recreated on the territory of the Borodino Museum of History in late autumn.
1) True
2) False
3) Not stated


5) Прочитайте текст и запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2 или 3, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа.

Показать текст. ⇓

Russian and French are spoken in Borodino on the day of the reenactment of the battle.
1) True
2) False
3) Not stated


6) Прочитайте текст и запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2 или 3, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа.

Показать текст. ⇓

The Battle of Borodino is recreated by Russian and French actors.
1) True
2) False
3) Not stated


7) Прочитайте текст и запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2 или 3, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа.

Показать текст. ⇓

To prepare for the reenactment the participants come to Borodino long before the event.
1) True
2) False
3) Not stated


8) Прочитайте текст и запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2 или 3, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа.

Показать текст. ⇓

The viewers wear the uniforms of the Russian and French armies of 1812.
1) True
2) False
3) Not stated

ОГЭ Английский язык задание №9 Демонстрационный вариант 2018 Про­чи­тай­те тек­сты и уста­но­ви­те со­от­вет­ствие между тек­ста­ми А–G и за­го­лов­ка­ми 1–8. В ответ за­пи­ши­те цифры, в по­ряд­ке, со­от­вет­ству­ю­щем бук­вам. Ис­поль­зуй­те каж­дую цифру толь­ко один раз. В за­да­нии есть один лиш­ний за­го­ло­вок.

1. The scientific explanation
5. Places without rainbows
2. The real shape
6. A personal vision
3. A lucky sign
7. A bridge between worlds
4. Some tips
8. Impossible to catch

A. Two people never see the same rainbow. Each person sees a different one. It
happens because the raindrops are constantly moving so the rainbow is always
changing too. Each time you see a rainbow it is unique and it will never be the
same! In addition, everyone sees colours differently according to the light and
how their eyes interpret it.
B. A rainbow is an optical phenomenon that is seen in the atmosphere. It appears
in the sky when the sun’s light is reflected by the raindrops. A rainbow always
appears during or immediately after showers when the sun is shining and the
air contains raindrops. As a result, a spectrum of colours is seen in the sky. It
takes the shape of a multicoloured arc.
C. Many cultures see the rainbow as a road, a connection between earth and
heaven (the place where God lives). Legends say that it goes below the earth at
the horizon and then comes back up again. In this way it makes a permanent
link between what is above and below, between life and death. In some myths
the rainbow is compared to a staircase connecting earth to heaven.
D. We all believe that the rainbow is arch-shaped. The funny thing is that it’s
actually a circle. The reason we don’t see the other half of the rainbow is
because we cannot see below the horizon. However, the higher we are above
the ground, the more of the rainbow’s circle we can see. That is why, from an
airplane in flight, a rainbow will appear as a complete circle with the shadow of
the airplane in the centre.
E. In many cultures there is a belief that seeing a rainbow is good. Legends say
that if you dig at the end of a rainbow, you’ll find a pot of gold. Rainbows are
also seen after a storm, showing that the weather is getting better, and there is
hope after the storm. This is why they are associated with rescue and good
fortune. If people happen to get married on such a day, it is said that they will
enjoy a very happy life together.

F. You can never reach the end of a rainbow. A rainbow is all light and water. It is
always in front of you while your back is to the sun. As you move, the rainbow
that your eye sees moves as well and it will always ‘move away’ at the same
speed that you are moving. No matter how hard you try, a rainbow will always
be as far away from you as it was before you started to move towards it.
G. To see a rainbow you have to remember some points. First, you should be
standing with the sun behind you. Secondly, the rain should be in front of you.
The most impressive rainbows appear when half of the sky is still dark with
clouds and the other half is clear. The best time to see a rainbow is on a warm
day in the early morning after sunrise or late afternoon before sunset. Rainbows
are often seen near waterfalls and fountains.
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Текст A B C D E F G
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ОГЭ Английский язык задание №9 Демонстрационный вариант 2017

1. Traditional delivery         2. Loss of popularity          3. Money above privacy
4. The best-known newspapers         5. Focus on different readers         6. The successful competitor
7. Size makes a difference        8. Weekend reading

A. As in many other European countries, Britain’s main newspapers are losing their readers. Fewer and fewer people are buying broadsheets and tabloids at the newsagent’s. In the last quarter of the twentieth century people became richer and now they can choose other forms of leisure activity. Also, there is the Internet which is a convenient and inexpensive alternative source of news.

B. The ‘Sunday papers’ are so called because that is the only day on which they are published. Sunday papers are usually thicker than the dailies and many of them have six or more sections. Some of them are ‘sisters’ of the daily newspapers. It means they are published by the same company but not on week days.

C. Another proof of the importance of ‘the papers’ is the morning ‘paper round’. Most newsagents organise these. It has become common that more than half of the country’s readers get their morning paper brought to their door by a teenager. The boy or girl usually gets up at around 5:30 a.m. every day including Sunday to earn a bit of pocket money.

D. The quality papers or broadsheets are for the better educated readers. They devote much space to politics and other ‘serious’ news. The popular papers, or tabloids, sell to a much larger readership. They contain less text and a lot more pictures. They use bigger headlines and write in a simpler style of English. They concentrate on ‘human interest stories’ which often means scandal.

E. Not so long ago in Britain if you saw someone reading a newspaper you could tell what kind it was without even checking the name. It was because the quality papers were printed on very large pages called ‘broadsheet’. You had to have expert turning skills to be able to read more than one page. The tabloids were printed on much smaller pages which were much easier to turn.

F. The desire to attract more readers has meant that in the twentieth century sometimes even the broadsheets in Britain look rather ‘popular’. They give a lot of coverage to scandal and details of people’s private lives. The reason is simple. What matters most for all newspaper publishers is making a profit. They would do anything to sell more copies.

G. If you go into any newsagent’s shop in Britain you will not find only newspapers. You will also see rows and rows of magazines for almost every imaginable taste. There are specialist magazines for many popular pastimes. There are around 3,000 of them published in the country and they are widely read, especially by women. Magazines usually list all the TV and radio programmes for the coming week and many British readers prefer them to newspapers.

Текст A B C D E F G
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1.Living through ages 2. Influenced by fashion 3. Young and energetic
4. Old and beautiful 5. Still a mystery 6. A lot to see and to do
7. Welcome to students 8. Fine scenery

A. Ireland is situated on the western edge of Europe. It is an island of great beauty with rugged mountains, blue lakes, ancient castles, long sandy beaches and picturesque harbors. The climate is mild and temperate throughout the year. Ireland enjoys one of the cleanest environments in Europe. Its unspoilt countryside provides such leisure ac¬tivities as hiking, cycling, golfing and horse-riding.
B. Over the past two decades, Ireland has become one of the top destinations for En¬glish language learning — more than 100,000 visitors come to Ireland every year to study English. One quarter of Ireland’s population is under 25 years of age and Dublin acts as a magnet for young people looking for quality education. The Irish are relaxed, friendly, spontaneous, hospitable people and have a great love of conversation. So, there is no better way of learning a language than to learn it in the country where it is spoken.
C. Dublin sits in a vast natural harbor. Such a protected harbor appealed to the first settlers 5,000 years ago and traces of their culture have been found around Dublin and its coast. But it was not until the Vikings came sailing down the coast in the middle 9th cen¬tury that Dublin became an important town. Next to arrive were the Anglo-Norman ad¬venturers. This was the beginning of the long process of colonization that dictated Ire¬land’s development over the next seven hundred years.
D. Now Dublin is changing fast and partly it ’s thanks to its youthful population over 50 percent are under the age of twenty-five and that makes the city come alive. To¬day Dublin is a city full of charm with a dynamic cultural life, small enough to be friend¬ly, yet cosmopolitan in outlook. This is the culture where the heritage of ancient days brings past and present together.
E. In general, cultural life of Dublin is very rich and you can enjoy visiting different museums, art galleries and exhibitions. But for those looking for peace and quiet there are two public parks in the centre of the city: St. Stephen’s Green and Merrion Square.
The city centre has several great shopping areas depending on your budget as well as nu¬merous parks and green areas for relaxing in. Dublin is also a sports-m ad city and wheth¬er you are playing or watching, it has everything for the sports enthusiast.
F. Step dances are the creation of Irish dancing m asters of the late 18th century.
Dancing m asters would often travel from town to town, teaching basic dancing steps to those interested and able to pay for them . Their appearance was motivated by a desire to learn the ‘fashionable’ dance styles which were coming from France. The dance m asters often changed these dances to fit the traditional music and, in doing so, laid the basis for much of today’s traditional Irish dance — ceili, step, and set.
G. St Patrick is known as the patron saint of Ireland. True, he was not a born Irish.
But he has become an integral part of the Irish heritage, mostly through his service across Ireland of the 5th century. Patrick was born in the second half of the 4th century AD. There are different views about the exact year and place of his birth . According to one school of opinion, he was born about 390 A.D., while the other school says it is about 373 AD. Again, his birth place is said to be in either Scotland or Roman England. So, though Patricius was his Romanicized name, he became later known as Patrick.
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Источник: ОГЭ 2017 АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК Л.М.Гудкова О.В.Терентьева


1.Thanks to new technology 2. A custom for a sweet-tooth 3. The upside down world
4. Nice for people in love 5. Happy next year 6. Not allowed for some time
7. Watch out or give the money 8. Christmas is coming

A. Houses are decorated with colored paper ribbons and chains. Holly with red ber¬ries is put on the walls and looks very colorful. A piece of mistletoe (a plant) is hung from the ceiling. It is said to be lucky to kiss under the mistletoe hanging from the ceil¬ing. As you can understand, a lot of people who may not usually kiss each other take the chance given by a piece of mistletoe!
B. One of the delicacies the British have enjoyed for almost 900 years is the mince pie.
This is a sort of small cake with a delicious mixture of spices and fruit. It was the Cru¬saders who introduced it when they brought back new aromatic spices from the Holy Land. In the 17th century Oliver Cromwell tried to ban the eating of mince pies (as well as singing of carols) — but people continued to eat (and sing) in secret.
C. Christmas Day is a family day when families try to be together. In past years, the Queen has broadcast a radio message from her study at Sandringham House. Since 1959 she has been recording her message every year some weeks before Christmas, so it could be broadcast on Christmas Day by radio in all parts of the British Commonwealth.
D. In the USA many towns have a public tree place in some square or park or outside the town hall. This custom began first in America when an illuminated tree was set up in 1909 in Pasadena, California. Now we can observe the ceremony of putting up the Christmas tree in Rockefeller Center in the heart of New York City, as well as in the main square of every town in the country. The nation’s main Christmas tree is set up in Washington, D.C. on the parade ground near the White House. A few days before Christ¬mas the President of the United States presses a button to light the tree. This is the sig¬nal for lighting trees across the land.
E. The custom of breaking a wishbone (of a chicken or turkey) comes from the Ro¬mans who used them for fortune telling. They examined the bones of sacrificed birds, which they thought were messengers from their gods. Looking for signs of future events, they broke the wishbone and the person with the longest piece could make a wish which may bring him luck or good fortune.
F. Christmas in Australia is not like anywhere else since December is one of the hot¬test months of the year. But the Australians have a great time anyway. Those who live near the coast go to the beach on Christmas day. They have a swim, play cricket or vol¬leyball, surf or just sit around with family and friends enjoying Christmas dinner. Santa Claus arrives on a surfboard — quite a change from sliding down a chimney!
G. Christmas caroling is particularly popular in Wales where it is often accompanied by a harp. In some rural areas a villager is chosen to be the Mari Lawyed. This person travels around the town dressed in white and carrying a horse’s skull on a long pole. Anyone given the ‘bite’ by the horse’s jaws must pay a fine.

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Текст A B C D E F G
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Источник: ОГЭ 2017 АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК Л.М.Гудкова О.В.Терентьева


1.A two-language melting pot 2. Born of hardships 3. Enough land for both
4. Failures and successes 5. Native tribes 6. Difficult life
7. Back to the roots 8. The birth of the new nation

A. Long before Europeans first came to America, many groups of Indians lived there.
They hunted forest animals for food and clothing. They gathered berries and nuts in the forests. Many groups fished in the rivers and streams that flowed through the forests.
Most anthropologists agree that the North American Indians migrated over the Bering Sea from Siberia, 10,000 to 30,000 years ago.
B. Later, in 1534 the French king sent Jacques C artier to find a water route to the Far East. C artier made several voyages to the new World, and he tried to establish a colony on the banks of the St. Lawrence River (where Montreal is located today) but he failed.
In 1608, Samuel de Champlain built the first perm anent French settlement in Canada.
He named it Quebec.
C. Both nations began to expand in the New World. English colonists began to settle along the Atlantic Coast. The French began to explore and build forts in the region south of the Great Lakes in the valleys of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers.
D. So Great Britain and France were fighting for control of Canada until 1763. As a result, France signed a treaty giving up all its claims to land on the continent of North America. The French who were living in Canada did not return to France. They continued to follow the customs and religion of their native land. They became ‘French Canadians’.КНТ 3
19
E. Since that time, millions of immigrants from the United States, Scotland, Ireland, England, Germany, Russia, Poland, Scandinavia, and other countries of the world have moved to Canada. Today about one third of the Canadians speak French and about two thirds speak English. English and French are both official languages of Canada.
F. Since the 1950s, there has been a remarkable rebirth of Indian culture. Native lan¬guage, culture and history programmes have been instituted in schools. Cultural centres are flourishing, and traditional practices and beliefs are increasingly being used to com¬bat alcoholism and drug problems. Indian elders are once again playing a vital role and linking generations.
G. Canadian sport is indebted to Indian culture for the toboggan, snowshoe, lacrosse stick and canoe. Many Indian games had utilitarian purposes related to survival, e.g. wrestling, archery, spear throw ing, foot and canoe racing. Some of them initially were meant to prepare youngsters for cooperative existence in a cruel environment

Текст A B C D E F G
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Источник: ОГЭ 2017 АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК Л.М.Гудкова О.В.Терентьева


1. The history of a popular drink 2. Healthy drink 3. They want it quick and easy
4. Not a drink 5. Some changes in British diet 6. Some changes in British tastes
7. Making tea process 8. Helpful hint

A. British attitude to what they eat daily has changed a lot over the past twenty years. In the 1990s each person ate about 352 gram s of ‘red ’ meat each week, but now it’s less than 250 gram s. People prefer chicken and fresh fish. And more people are interest¬ed in healthy eating these days. In 1988 the national average was 905 gram s of fruit and fruit juices each week, but now i t ’s nearly 2,000 gram s.
B. Twenty years ago, British people usually ate at home. They only went out for a meal at special times, like for somebody’s birthday. Today when both parents are work¬ing, they cannot cook large meals in the evenings. ‘Ready-made’ meals from supermar¬kets and Marks and Spencer and ‘take-aw ay’ meals from fast food restaurants are very popular. If you are feeling tired or lazy, you can even phone a local restaurant. They will bring the food to your house.
C. In the past, traditional steakhouses were very popular places, but now more and more people prefer foreign food. Every British town has Indian and Chinese restaurants, and large towns have restaurants from many other countries too.
D. The British population drinks a lot of tea. Tea — mostly green tea from China — came to Britain in the late 1500s. But it was only for the very rich. It became cheap¬er about three hundred years later, when it was planted in India and later in Ceylon (Sri Lanka). People from all classes started drinking it. But some people thought that too much tea was bad for their health. So they started putting milk in it to make it healthier!
E. Afternoon tea is a small meal. Now most ordinary British families do not have time for afternoon tea at home, but in the past it was a tradition. It became popular when rich ladies invited their friends to their houses for an afternoon cup of tea. They started of¬fering their visitors sandwiches and cakes too. Soon everybody was enjoying this excit¬ing new meal.
F. If someone in England asks you ‘Would you like a cup?’ they are asking if you would like a cup of tea. If someone says, ‘Let me be m other’ or ‘Shall I be m other?’ they are offering to pour out the tea from the teapot.
G. Most people today use teabags to make tea, but some serious drinkers make tea in the traditional way. First the water is boiled. Then some of the boiled water is used to warm the teapot. Then the tealeaves are put in the teapot. Then the boiling water is add¬ed. Then the pot is left for five minutes under a ‘teacosy’. Finally, the tea is served in delicate cups with saucers.

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Источник: ОГЭ 2017 АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК Л.М.Гудкова О.В.Терентьева


1.Absolute honesty 2.The cost of education 3. Just choosing 4. Inform al teaching
5. Another application 6. Optional teaching 7. Needed move 8. Uncertain parents

A. At the beginning of your last year at school you receive an application form . On this form you choose up to five universities that you would like to go to. The form is sent to those universities with information from your school about you and your academic results. If the universities are interested in your application, they will ask you to attend an interview and will offer you a place. Any offer, however, is only conditional at this stage.
B. А-level examinations are the exams taken at the end of your time at school. So, when a university makes an offer, it will tell you the minimum grades that you must get on your а-level exam. If you don’t get those grades, then you will not be accepted and you will have to apply again to another university.
C. Like all British universities, Oxford is a state university not a private one.
Students are selected on the basis of their results in the national examination or the special Oxford entrance examination. There are many applicants and nobody can get a place by paying. Successful candidates are admitted to a special college of the university: that will be their home for the next three years and for a longer period if they would like to go on studying for a postgraduate degree.
D. An undergraduate will spend an hour a week with his or her ‘tutor’; perhaps in the company of one other student. Each of them will have written an essay for the tutor, which serves as the basis for discussion, arguments, the exposition of ideas and academic methods. At the end of the hour the students go away with a new essay and a list of books that might be helpful in preparing for the essay.
E. Lectures and seminars are other kinds of teaching; popular lecturers can attract audience from several faculties, while others may find themselves speaking to two or three loyal students or maybe to no-one at all. In practice, most students at Oxford are enthusiastic about academic life and many of them work for days on each essay, sometimes sitting up through the night with a wet towel round their heads.
F. Most 18 and 19 year-olds in Britain are rather independent people, and when the time comes to pick a college, choose one as far away from home as possible. So, many students in northern and Scottish universities come from England and vice versa. It’s very unusual for students to live at home. Although parents may be a little sad to see this happen, they usually have to approve of this step and see it as a necessary part of becoming an adult.
G. Students all over the world have to work for their education. A college education in the USA is expensive. The costs are so high that most families begin to save for their children’s education when their children are the babies. Even so, many young people cannot afford to pay the expenses of full-time college work. They do not have enough money to pay for school costs. Tuition for attending the university, books for classes, and dormitory costs are high. There are other expenses such as chemistry and biology laboratories fees and special student activity fees.

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Источник: ОГЭ 2017 АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК Л.М.Гудкова О.В.Терентьева

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  1. The person the university is named after
  2. The great variety of faculties to choose from
  3. University sports clubs and teams
  4. The famous graduates of the university
  5. The university research opportunities
  6. Opportunities for international students
  7. The students and the students’ life
  8. The university’s locations then and now

A. There is no doubt that Michail Lomonosov was an outstanding person of many talents and remarkable abilities. He was born in 1711, not far from Arkhangelsk, Russia. The boy was very curious and had a passion for learning. However, the village where he lived could not provide any education opportunities. When very young, Lomonosov left his village for Moscow. He became an outstanding mathematician, scientist, and writer. In 1755, he founded the university which is now considered to be the top university in Russia and has the name of Lomonosov Moscow State University.

B. Every year, Moscow State University accepts applicants from different countries of the world. There are numerous exchange programmes as well. The university also offers a wide range of post-graduate programmes and courses for international specialists in science, culture, and business studies. A lot of foreign students see studying in Moscow State University as a great chance to learn and master the Russian language, and to explore Russian culture.

C. Moscow State University provides good opportunities for studying and has a strong focus on research work. It boasts modern and well-equipped laboratories. There are more than 500 research teams in which the students and the academic staff of the university work together on the most challenging scientific and technological projects. At the Department of Space Sciences, for example, they deal with black holes and people’s behaviour in zero gravity.

D. In the 18th century, the university had only three departments: philosophy, medicine, and law. Now there are more than 40! Whether you are interested in sciences or humanities, Moscow State University has a lot to offer to you! All the faculties maintain a high level of education. According to the students’ opinion, one of the toughest faculties is the Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics.

E. The number of students of the university is really impressive – it is about 40000! Naturally, their time at university does not mean only learning. On the campus they have sports facilities, swimming pools, a museum, and a theatre. The university houses musical and cultural events, and certainly the students have their own traditional holidays – Students’ Day, for example. It is celebrated on January 25, which is the date when the university was established.

F. When the university was founded, in 1755, it occupied the very impressive building of the Grand Medicine Store on Red Square. In 1787, the Empress of Russia Catherine the Great decided to move it to a new building on the other side of Mokhovaya Street. Later, the university went through several more relocations. Since 1953, most faculties have been on Sparrow Hills (Vorobyovy Gory), in the south-western part of Moscow.

G. Moscow State University has all the reasons to top the list of the best universities in the Russian Federation. The people who graduate from it are specialists in high demand. A good number of Nobel laureates started their academic career there – like the physicists Igor Tamm, Nikolay Semyonov, Pyotr Kapitsa, Alexey Abrikosov and others. The Nobel Peace Prize awardees Andrei Sakharov (the human rights activist) and Michael Gorbachev (the first President of the USSR) were students of Moscow State University too.

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1. Comparing insects

2. Some special features

3. Some dragonflies migrate

4. Excellent vision

5. Keeping them warm or cool

6. Masters of flight

7. Ancient insects

8. Risks of extinction

A. Long before the dinosaurs walked the Earth, dragonflies took to the air. If we could transport ourselves back 250 million years, we would immediately recognize the familiar sight of dragonflies flying in pursuit of prey. Ancient dragonflies may have been considerably larger than those we see today. A fossilized impression of a dragonfly wing, found in a coal mine in England, is the oldest known dragonfly specimen. This dragonfly lived 320 million years ago and had a wingspan of 8 inches.

B. Relative to other insects, dragonfly vision is extraordinarily good. The head consists almost entirely of two huge compound eyes, which gives the dragonfly nearly 360° vision. Each compound eye contains as many as 30,000 lenses, or ommatidia. A dragonfly uses about 80% of its brain to process all this visual information. They can see a wider spectrum of colours than humans. This remarkable vision helps them to detect the movement of other insects and avoid collisions in flight.

C. Dragonflies can move each of their four wings independently. In addition to flapping each wing up and down, they can rotate their wings forward and back on”an axis. This flexibility enables them to put on an aerial show like no other insect. Dragonflies can move straight up or down, fly backwards, stop and hover, and make hairpin turns, at full speed or in slow motion. A dragonfly can fly forward at a speed of 100 body lengths per second, or up to 30 miles per hour.

D. A number of dragonfly species are known to migrate. As with other organisms that migrate, dragonflies relocate to follow or find needed resources, or in response to environmental changes like cold weather. The globe skimmer is one of several species known to develop in temporary freshwater pools. Forced to follow the rains that replenish their breeding sites, the globe skimmer set a new insect world record when a biologist documented its 11,000 mile trip between India and Africa.

E. Fifty years ago there were twice as many ponds in Britain as there are today. The draining of agricultural land, «filling in and pollution have all contributed to the disappearance of most countryside ponds. Canals have also suffered from pollution, especially by chemicals used on farmland draining into water. The loss of suitable fresh water habitats has affected dragonflies enormously and they are becoming increasingly rare. Some of dragonflies which can be found living only in the Norfolk Broads, is on the list of British endangered species of insects.

F. A dragonfly has two large compound eyes which take up most of its head. Dragonflies have long, delicate, membranous wings which are transparent and some have light yellow colouring near the tips. Their bodies are long and slender and they have short antennae. Dragonflies are very colourful. Some are red like the Comet Darner and yellow like the Emerald Darner. They can beat each pairs of wings together or separately and their rear wings can be out of phase with the front wings. Their wing beat is around 50-90 beats per second.

G. Dragonflies and butterflies possess two pair of wings. The butterfly’s wings are made up of two large pairs of wings each possessing a forewing and a hindwing. Butterflies can’t fly if the temperature of their body falls below 8″5 degrees and therefore need to sun themselves in order to warm up. Butterflies also have a pair of antennae with small receptors attached for smelling. Dragonflies have two pairs of wings that are transparent, rigid, straight, and have few veins. Unlike butterflies, dragonflies are adept at flying.

Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между текстами А–G и заголовками 1–8. В ответ запишите цифры, в порядке, соответствующем буквам. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

1. The career decision

2. Rapid progress and a brilliant career

3. A hard start

4. The special guest

5. His favourite dishes

6. Innovations in management

7. A man of many talents

8. Masterpieces in the kitchen

A. An old man entered the restaurant. He looked very much like other people dining there — an elegant suit and noble manners. He could have been a banker or a businessman or even a senator. However, a brief whisper among the waiters indicated that this guest was even more special than the others. It was a great honour to have the grey-haired visitor who was called the king of chefs and the chef of kings.

B. The man was Auguste Escoffier. He spent his early years in a small village not far from Nice, went to school and dreamt about becoming a sculptor — he was very good at painting and making wooden and iron figures. However, his father thought that it wouldn’t earn his son a living and at the age of thirteen Auguste was told that he would become a cook. The boy left home to take up an apprenticeship with his uncle, who owned a restaurant in Nice.

C. Auguste didn’t mind his father’s decision very much — he liked helping his grandmother in the kitchen. However, the restaurant kitchen was very different from his grandmother’s. It was a small room, unbearably hot and stuffy. Lots of dishes were being fried, boiled or stewed at the same time. The people were sweating and swearing and the standards of hygiene were very low, if there were any at all. The cooks were rude to their assistants and punished them for any mistakes.

D. Escoffier, however, didn’t give up and he was quickly rewarded for his hard Work. At the age of nineteen he was offered a job in a highly reputable Parisian restaurant. At the time of Franko-Prussian War Escoffier served in the army as a Chef and managed to prepare delicious dishes from very basic ingredients. When Escoffier returned to civil life, he became really famous and worked in the most fashionable restaurants of Paris, London and Monte Carlo.

E. Escoffier was in the culinary profession for more than sixty years. He wrote several culinary books that are still popular with chefs. In the books one can find detailed instructions on how to make a piece of art in the kitchen. He created lots of new salads, meat and fish dishes, sauces and desserts. One of Escoffier’s most famous desserts is probably Peach Melba, a dish that he created specially for the opera singer Nellie Melba, who dined in his restaurant.

F. Escoffier made French Cuisine famous worldwide. Apart from creating new dishes he changed cooking techniques, the order of serving dishes and kitchen organization. Escoffier introduced the brigade system — each member was responsible for particular operations and the chef supervised the whole process. Escoffier’s kitchens were spotlessly clean, his staff were efficient and polite, swearing and drinking was absolutely prohibited. He turned cooking into art.

G. As with any outstanding person, Auguste Escoffier was gifted in many other ways. The famous Sarah Bernhardt liked his paintings and reproached him for burying the talent of an artist. Cesar Ritz, the founder of the Hotel Ritz in Paris and London, highly valued Escoffier as a businessman. They had worked together in Baden-Baden, Paris, London and Monte Carlo.

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