A reason for change огэ ответы

1 установите соответствие между заголовками 1 8 и текстами a g. используйте каждую цифру только один раз. в

1) Установите соответствие между заголовками 1 — 8 и текстами A — G. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний.

1. A reason for change
2. Souvenirs for coffee-lovers
3. Setting up the business
4. A traditional taste
5. A perfect start to the day
6. The sources of the coffee beans
7. Nature friendly company
8. Clients’ voices are heard

A. The first Starbucks opened in Seattle, Washington, 1971. Three friends, who all had a passion for fresh coffee, opened a small shop. They began buying and selling fine coffee, for which people travelled from all over the country. It wasn’t a café at that time. It was a shop selling coffee and special coffee equipment.

B. In 1981 Howard Schultz joined the Starbucks company and became its leading manager. He once went to Italy and was impressed by the coffee culture he found there: people were sitting in beautiful cafés enjoying their cups of coffee for hours. What he saw made him think about Starbucks as a café. He decided to turn the Starbucks shops into fashionable and romantic coffee bars.

C. Mornings are always good when they include a healthy breakfast. But eggs, bacon, porridge, bread – who has the time to cook? Fortunately, Starbucks can solve this problem. The coffee shop offers delicious breakfast sandwiches and cakes with your morning coffee. You can choose from 8 varieties on the menu. It will really be a good morning!

D. Starbucks today is working hard to develop their recycling program. Their cups are made partially from recycled paper. More and more Starbucks cafes today serve drinks in china cups. What’s more, the company encourages people to bring their own cups and mugs for coffee. If there are fewer paper cups used, it will help keep our forests alive.

E. Starbucks coffee is grown and bought from three different regions around the world. One group comes from Asia, the second from Africa and the final one from Latin America. All in all, the company buys its coffee from 24 countries. Each kind of coffee has its own special taste and aroma which you can try and enjoy at any Starbucks café.

F. If you want to bring a piece of Starbucks home, why not buy one of their special cups or mugs? You can choose from a classic white coffee mug or a mug from a limited collection or a mug with the seasonal design. For those who are ready to show their love for Starbucks, there are caps and T-shirts and even scarves. You can find all of these in almost every coffee shop.

G. “MyStarbucksIdea.com” is the first social website from Starbucks. In this way the company hopes to be closer to those who buy their coffee. They want to know their views and opinions about the prices, the service and the quality of the coffee. Anyone can enter the site, make a comment or suggest something. These ideas will help Starbucks to improve.


2) Прочитайте текст и запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2 или 3, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа.

Показать текст. ⇓

The organisation ‘Comic Relief’ was established to help poor people in Africa.
1) True
2) False
3) Not stated


3) Прочитайте текст и запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2 или 3, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа.

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Nowadays ‘Comic Relief’ has become an international organisation.
1) True
2) False
3) Not stated


4) Прочитайте текст и запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2 или 3, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа.

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Red Nose Day is held every year in spring.
1) True
2) False
3) Not stated


5) Прочитайте текст и запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2 или 3, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа.

Показать текст. ⇓

Red Nose Day is а very popular day in Great Britain.
1) True
2) False
3) Not stated


6) Прочитайте текст и запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2 или 3, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа.

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Red noses are sold at the same price in all shops and supermarkets.
1) True
2) False
3) Not stated


7) Прочитайте текст и запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2 или 3, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа.

Показать текст. ⇓

An essential part of Red Nose Day is the contest for the best nose.
1) True
2) False
3) Not stated


8) Прочитайте текст и запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2 или 3, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа.

Показать текст. ⇓

There is a special TV programme about Red Nose Day.
1) True
2) False
3) Not stated


9) Прочитайте текст и запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2 или 3, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа.

Показать текст. ⇓

Information about Red Nose Day events is posted on the Internet.
1) True
2) False
3) Not stated

  1. You are going to give a talk about your school.

— what your typical school day is like

— what your favourite subject is

— what you like most about your school

I would like to tell you a few words about my school. My typical school day usually starts at 8.30 am. We typically have 6 or 7 lessons a day. I usually have lunch after the fourth lesson. When all my lessons are over, I usually have one or two extra classes. We are getting ready to take our school-leaving exams.

My favourite school subject is English. Firstly because I think studying languages helps you improve your memory and makes your brain work better. Besides, I enjoy studying English. I like the way it sounds. I enjoy listening to songs and watching films in English.

There are a lot of things I like about my school. First, I really like my teachers. They are very understanding, helpful and are very good at explaining things. Besides. I like our school canteen. It is very comfortable, looks nice and the food is really tasty.

So, I am a lucky one as I really like my school and it is very important as we spend most of our day at school.

  1. You are going to give a talk about books.

— whether reading is still popular with teenagers, and why, or why not

— what kind of books you like reading

— why many people prefer e-books to paper books

I would like to tell you a few words about what I think about books and reading. To my mind, reading is not so popular nowadays as it was a couple of decades before. There are several reasons for this. First, teenagers now have far more ways to entertain themselves. We have an opportunity to play computer games, listen to countless number of songs and watch any films we like on the Internet.

As for me, I like reading very much. My favourite kind of books is adventure stories. I like adventure stories because they make my monotonous life more exciting and interesting, give me an opportunity to travel around the world.

Most people nowadays prefer e-books to paper ones, as paper books cost more and occupy a lot of place in your home. Some really huge paper books are too heavy to be taken with you. As for the e-book, you can take it with you wherever you go.

So, in conclusion, despite the fact that reading is not so popular nowadays, it continues to remain one of my favourite pastimes.

3. You are going to give a talk about your school homework

  • how long it takes you to do your homework

  • what subjects you usually start with and why

  • whether schoolchildren should be given more or less homework and why

I would like to tell you a few words about my school homework. It always takes me a great deal of time to prepare for all my lessons: usually about 4 hours or even more. I have to spend much more time on my homework in the ninth grade because I am getting ready to take my school-leaving exams in four subjects and I pay special attention to these subjects.

I usually start doing my homework with humanities as they are most tiresome for me. You have to read so much and to remember plenty of information. It is very difficult for me as I don’t have very good memory. So, if I put them off till the end of the day I am too tired to do them.

In my opinion, schoolchildren nowadays are too busy at school. We have more subjects than our parents did, we get more homework. So, we almost don’t have any free time to relax, to hang out with friends, to do sports and to to enjoy our hobbies. As a result, many of us have poor health, get tired very quickly and become nervous. And this may lead to worse marks at school. That is why, I believe, schoolchildren should be given less homework.

  1. about travelling.

— why most people enjoy travelling

— what people like doing while travelling

— what place you would like to go to and why

I would like to tell you a few words about travelling. I think most people enjoy travelling because it is a good way to relax and to experience new positive emotions. It gives you an opportunity to communicate with different people and get to know their lifestyles and traditions.

To my mind, most people enjoy sightseeing while on holiday. They like visiting places which are of great historical and cultural interest and learning about different architectural styles. Many people, especially women find great pleasure in shopping. For example, in Milan there are great sales in shops when you can buy brand clothes much cheaper than the same things in Moscow.

As for me, I would like to visit Japan. I am very interested in the customs and traditions of this country. This country seems another world to me. It is an Asian country and differs a lot from European countries and Russia as well. There is a kind of mystery in it I’d like to uncover.

I hope my dream will come true some day.

  1. You are going to give a talk about TV.

  • whether watching TV is still a popular pastime with teenagers, and why

  • how many hours a week you watch TV

  • what you dislike most about TV

I would like to tell you a few words about what I think of TV. I believe watching TV is very popular with teenagers nowadays. There are so many kinds of television now: ordinary, cable, satellite. There are hundreds of different channels where everyone can find something to his/her liking. I think numerous sitcoms and reality shows are the most favourite programmes among teenagers.

As for me, I don’t spend much time watching TV. It is usually one hour a day on week days and about three hours a day on Saturday and Sunday, that is about 11 hours a week. I cannot afford more as I am very busy preparing for my school-leaving exams. Besides, I don’t think watching much television is safe for your health.

I like watching TV in general. It helps you to relax after a hard day. But at the same time I believe there is too much violence on TV nowadays. There are plenty of thrillers with very violent murders. And they are often on during the day when children can watch them. It is very harmful for children’s psycho. They may get nervous or aggressive.

So, to my mind watching TV is a good pastime, but one should carefully choose what programmes to watch.

  1. about your free time.

-whether you have a lot of free time and why

— what you enjoy doing in your free time

-what your Sunday afternoons are like

I would like to tell you a few words about my free time. At the moment I am very busy preparing for my school-leaving exams and have one or two extra classes a day. That is why I can spare only a little time for my leisure activities.

One of my favourite pastimes is watching films. I really love going to the cinema. But unfortunately, we don’t have a cinema here in Morshansk. So we have to go to Tambov. It’s not very cheap. So, we don’t go there very often. But I often watch films on the Internet and TV. I prefer melodramas. Besides, I enjoy going to the discos at the weekends. I adore dancing and can dance for three to four hours at a stretch. Besides, I like spending time chatting with my friend. We have a lot in common with her and there are so many things to talk about!

Sunday is my only day off when I have neither lessons nor extra classes. So I try to get the most out of it. My best friend and I usually meet at noon at my or her place and make a home cinema for ourselves. We buy plenty of snacks beforehand and enjoy watching films on the Internet chewing something! After that we discuss the film and everything that happened to us during the week.

  1. about whether and seasons.

— which of the four seasons you like most

-how the earth’s climate has changed recently

— whether you trust the weather forecast and why

I would like to tell you a few words about weather and climate.

As for me, my favourite season is summer. Fist of all, we have our longest holidays in summer – three months of rest and relaxation! Second, there are so many things you can do in summer! The weather is hot and sunny. You can swim in the river, lie in the sun and get a beautiful tan. Besides, I try to keep fit and do sports. Summer is a good time for cycling. I enjoy cycling in the country when there is a lot of vegetation and birds singing around you.

As for the earth’s climate, it has changed a lot recently. They say the climate has become warmer and the average temperature has increased by about 1 degree. I am not sure if that is true. On one hand, we really don’t have such cold winters as before. On the other hand, summers are often not so warm now. But what I am absolutely sure about is weather has become very changeable. The temperature can fall or rise considerably overnight.

As for weather forecasts, I don’t trust them very much as they rarely come true nowadays. There were many cases they let me down. Maybe because weather has become unpredictable.

  1. About public holidays in Russia.

— what public holidays are celebrated in Russia

— what your favourite public holiday is and why

— how your favorite public holiday is celebrated in your town.

I would like to tell you a few words about public holidays in Russia. We celebrate the following public holidays: New Year’s Day, Defender of the Fatherland Day, Women Day, May Day, Victory Day and Independence day.

As for me, my favourite public holiday is New Year’s Day. First of all, because, we have ten days off devoted to the holiday. Besides, I like all the traditions connected with it: decorating the New Year’s tree, meeting Father Frost and Snow Maiden, setting off fireworks, exchanging presents and so on.

In the town Where I live celebrating New Year’s day usually starts at home with the family. Family members usually meet about an hour before the midnight and see the old year off. Then we see the new year in and while the clock on Spasskaya tower chimes twelve we make a wish. After that many of us go to the central square to watch a New Year’s show prepared by our local actors with dances, songs, different contests and presents from Father Frost and Snow Maiden. It is usually great fun!

  1. You are going to give a talk about keeping fit.

why a healthy lifestyle is more popular nowadays;

· what you do to keep fit;

· what sports activities are popular with teenagers in your region.

I would like to tell you a few words about healthy lifestyle.

I believe a healthy lifestyle has become more popular nowadays. First, people are more health-conscious thanks to mass media like TV or magazines. They promote healthy lifestyle by showing successful slim athletic people. There is also much information about healthy eating and keeping fit. Besides, people have more opportunities to live a healthy life now. We have more sport centres and devices to cook healthy food.

As for me, I don’t do much to keep fit. I just do morning exercises for 15 minutes every day, try to eat regularly small amounts of food 4 or 5 times a day and try to avoid eating sweet things.

As for sport activities popular with teenagers in our region, I believe they prefer athletics. There are many sport clubs where you can do athletics. Our local authorities also hold different athletics competitions quite regularly. Besides, fitness training is also popular among teenagers. Girls like attending non-equipment fitness group classes, boys prefer equipment-based workouts at a gym.

So, I believe healthy life style is popular nowadays thanks to mass media and greater opportunities we have.

10. You are going to give a talk about your school. You will have to start in 1.5 minutes and will speak for not more than 2 minutes.

Remember to say:

·         what you like most about your school;

·         what weekday you find the most difficult, and why;

·         what you would like to change in your school life.

I would like to tell you a few words about my school.

There are a lot of things I like about my school. First, I really like my teachers. They are very understanding, helpful and are very good at explaining things. Besides. I like our school canteen. It is very comfortable, looks nice and the food is really tasty.

As for the most difficult day for me, I believe it is Tuesday. We have 7 lessons this day among which there are 4 subjects that require plenty of reading and learning: History, Geography, Chemistry and Literature. And as I don’t have very good memory, it is quite difficult for me to get ready for these subjects. Besides, I have 2 extra classes in Social studies and Maths after lessons. I am getting ready for my school-leaving exams. So I am extremely tired at the end of the day.

Though I like my school very much, there are some things I would like to change. It would be nice to have more parties than we do now. We are too focused on studying and lack entertainment. I believe that too much work and no fun is not very good for students’ health.

So, I am a lucky one as I really like my school, though some things might be improved.

11. You are going to give a talk about the place where you live. You will have to start in 1.5 minutes and will speak for not more than 2 minutes.

Remember to say:

·         what your city, town or village is famous for;

·         what your favourite place in your city, town or village is, and why you like it;

·         whether you are going to stay in your city, town or village after leaving school or move to another place, and why.

I would like to tell you a few words about my town.

I live in a small town called Morshansk not far from Tambov. There are a few things my town is famous for. First of all, it is our beautiful Troitsky Cathedral. It is hard to believe, but it is the third largest cathedral in Russia! Besides, we have a very good Historical and art museum rich in paintings of famous artists and unique ancient Russian wooden sculpture.

As for my favourite place in my town, it is our pine-tree forest. It is a very picturesque place. Sometimes It seems to me that it is this forest that you can see on the pictures of the famous Russian painter Shishkin. Besides, the air is so fresh there. I like to go jogging there from spring to autumn and go skiing in winter.

Though I like my town, I am going to move to a larger city after leaving school, because there are few education and job opportunities in it. There are no higher education institutions and the unemployment rate is very high here.

So, I like my town, but I have to leave it after school as I want to get good education and job.

12. You are going to give a talk about foreign languages. You will have to start in 1.5 minutes and will speak for not more than 2 minutes.

Remember to say:

·         why lots of people learn foreign languages nowadays;        

·         why you have chosen to do the English exam this year;

·         what you did to prepare for your English exam.

I would like to tell you a few words about learning foreign languages.

I think lots of people learn foreign languages nowadays because international relations in all spheres of economy are becoming stronger and stronger. So, companies need specialists of all kinds with the knowledge of foreign languages. That’s why people who want to be successful in their career study languages.

As for me, I have chosen English as my school-leaving exam this year, as it is my favourite subject and I am quite good at it. Besides, I think it is one of the most useful and important subjects in modern world and the knowledge of English will help me to get good education and be successful in my career.

I did my best to prepare for my English exam: read plenty of texts and expanded my vocabulary, watched films in English to improve my listening skills, did grammar exercises. Besides, communicating with my pen friends (writing messages and chatting via Skype) helped me a lot.

So, learning languages is very important in modern world, that is why I have chosen to take an exam in English this year.

13.  You are going to give a talk about pets. You will have to start in 1.5 minutes and will speak for not more than 2 minutes.

Remember to say:

·         why people keep pets;

·         what pets are most popular in big cities;

·         whether having pets is a big responsibility, and why.

I would like to tell you a few words about pets.

There are very many reasons why people keep pets at home. First, they help people not to feel lonely. They are very good friends. They give you unconditional love and are always faithful. Pets can improve your mood, they are always there for you if you feel down or depressed. Moreover, some scientists claim that pets can cure different diseases.

I believe that in big cities budgies, fish, hamsters and other small pets that don’t need much space and to be walked out are most popular. I think so because there are fewer places you can walk your pets in large cities and the streets are a very dangerous place for them there. Besides, people have less time for walking with their pets as they spend much time getting to their work and back.

To my mind, having pets is a big responsibility as you must know and do a lot to keep your pet healthy and happy. They cannot take care of themselves and totally depend on you.

So, keeping pets at home has a lo lot benefits, but it is also a great responsibility.

14. You are going to give a talk about the Internet. You will have to start in 1.5 minutes and will speak for not more than 2 minutes.

Remember to say:

·         why today’s teenagers use the Internet so much;

·         how the Internet makes long-distance communication easier;

·         what dangers teenagers can face when they use the Internet.

I would like to tell you a few words about the Internet.

I believe today’s teenagers use the Internet so much because it is a perfect tool for getting information and entertaining. It is a combination of different kinds of mass media, means of communication and entertainment sources. You can get news, communicate with friends, read books, watch films, listen to music, play games and even shop on the Internet nowadays.

The Internet makes long-distance communication much easier than it was before its invention. In case of ordinary mail, it took a letter several days or even weeks to reach the addressee. Now, the process takes just a few seconds even if the sender and the addressee are thousands of miles from each other.

There are many dangers, however, teenagers can face on the Internet. First, they can watch video for adults which is not good for their psycho. Second, they can become a victim of cyberbulling and be piled with numerous nasty messages. Besides, they can become a victim of fraud while shopping online.

So, the Internet is very useful, but parents must make sure their children use it in a proper way.

15.You are going to give a talk about photography. You will have to start in 1.5 minutes and speak for not more than 2 minutes.

Remember to say:

  • why people like taking pictures

  • why taking photos is more popular today than it was in the past

  • what the best photo you have ever taken is

I would like to tell you a few words about photography.

I believe people like taking pictures because photos help them to remember and keep in their memory forever the most important, happy and beautiful moments they experience in their life.

To my mind, taking photos is more popular today as it has become much easier. We have got digital cameras that have simplified the whole process greatly. There is no film in digital cameras you have to develop. So, it saves money as there is no need to go to the photo lab and pay them to get the pictures. The moment you press the button, the photo is ready and you can see it. So, another plus is if the picture is not OK, you can re-take it.

The best photo I have ever taken is the photo I took while going up on a very high mountain in a special means of transport. We were high up above very tall trees. The view below was really breathtaking! And the photo was wonderful too!

As for me, I like taking pictures very much and always take my camera with me while travelling.

16.You are going to give a talk about holidaysYou will have to start in 1.5 minutes and will speak for not more than 2 minutes.

Remember to say:

·         what holidays are most popular in your country;

·         what your favourite holiday is and how you celebrate it;

·         if you prefer to give presents or to get presents, and why.

I would like to tell you a few words about holidays.

I believe the most popular holidays in my country are New Year’s Day and Victory day. People like to exchange presents and set off fireworks on New Year’s night. Victory Day is a special day for all the Russians. We feel proud of our grandparents who won victory over German fascists in 1945.

As for me, my favourite holiday is New Year’s day. I usually start celebrating it at home with my family. All our family members usually meet about an hour before the midnight and see the old year off. Then we see the new year in and while the clock on Spasskaya tower chimes twelve we make a wish. After that my friends and I go to the central square to watch a New Year’s show prepared by our local actors with dances, songs, different contests and presents from Father Frost and Snow Maiden. It is usually great fun!

For me giving presents and getting presents are equally pleasant. I love getting presents as I like the feeling of curiosity and expectation you experience while unwrapping them.. And I also like watching people feel happy getting presents from me.

17.You are going to give a talk about the InternetYou will have to start in 1.5 minutes and will speak for not more than 2 minutes.

Remember to say:

·         why using the Internet is so popular;

·         how the Internet can help students in their studies;

·         whether the Internet can be dangerous, and why.

I would like to tell you a few words about the Internet.

I believe the Internet is so popular nowadays because it is a perfect tool for getting information and entertaining. It is a combination of different kinds of mass media, means of communication and entertainment sources. You can get news, communicate with friends, read books, watch films, listen to music, play games and even shop on the Internet nowadays.

The Internet can help students in their studies very much. It is a wonderful source of information. Most libraries have their own sites on the Internet now. You just type in the title of the book or even the topic you are searching for and have the result almost in no time. Besides, you can follow plenty of educational courses and get the tutor’s assistance on the Internet nowadays.

There are many dangers, however, people can face on the Internet. First, they can become a victim of cyber-bulling and be piled with numerous nasty messages. Second, they can become a victim of fraud while shopping on-line. Besides, some personal or secret information can be stolen from your computer when you use the Internet.

So, the Internet is very useful, but people must make sure they use it in a proper way.

18.

You are going to give a talk about travelling. You will have to start in 1.5 minutes and will speak for not more than 2 minutes.

Remember to say:

·         why most people like travelling;

·         which season is the best for travelling in your opinion;

·         what means of transport is the best, and why.

I would like to tell you a few words about travelling. I think most people enjoy travelling because it is a good way to relax and to experience new positive emotions. It gives you an opportunity to communicate with different people and get to know their lifestyles and traditions.

To my mind, the best season for travelling is late spring (if you want to see as many interesting places as possible). It is the time when there is already a lot of vegetation and the trees are in blossom. But at the same time it is not so hat as in summer when travelling is really tiresome. But if the main aim of your travelling is lying somewhere on a seashore, swimming, getting a nice tan and doing nothing, the best season is summer, of course.

I believe, the best means of transport is your own car. It is very convenient. First, you don’t have to wait for your bus or train at the station. It saves your time. Second, you can choose the route yourself to take the most of your trip and enjoy most picturesque places. Besides, you can stop any time you feel tired to stretch your legs after a long sitting or have a bite if you are hungry.

19.You are going to give a talk about your career plans. You will have to start in 1.5 minutes and will speak for not more than 2 minutes.

Remember to say:

·         what job you want to do in the future;

·         what two subjects you think are the most important for your future job, and why;

·         whether your family approve of your career choice or not.

I would like to tell you a few words about my career plans.

I am really interested in tourism and want to become a tour guide in the future. There are two reasons why I have chosen this job. First, I like travelling and sightseeing. Besides, I am very sociable and enjoy communicating with different people. I think this kind of job gives you such an opportunity.

I think geography and history are the most important subjects for my future job as you have to know much and to tell people about the nature and history of different places, about their customs and traditions and different architectural styles. Besides, it would be also very useful to know foreign languages as there are often a lot of foreigners on excursions.

All the members of my family approve of my choice. First of all, they believe I am the right person for the job as I am good at geography, history and English and very sociable too. Second, tourist business is actively developing and they think it will be easy to find a job.

Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между текстами А–G и заголовками 1–8. Запишите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

A)Recycling is becoming easier and more widespread. Governments support companies that recycle waste. Also people prefer to buy things from companies that make their products from recycled materials. Reports say that people worldwide are starting to care more about what happens to waste products. For example, now Americans recycle almost 35% of their waste, while in the 1990s the percentage was much smaller.

B)In autumn 2004 a new body was created in Russia to protect the country’s natural resources. It’s called the Federal Ecological Service. The aims of the new institution are the following: to prevent environmental pollution and to control industrial waste. They say that the new governmental service has improved the state system of environmental protection in Russia.

C)Climate change is on us. Ten years ago we only spoke about it, now it’s happening before our eyes. Global warming is bringing unpredictable changes. The Arctic sea ice is disappearing; glaciers are melting faster every year. Due to heavy rains some rivers overflow, while others dry out. Disasters such as tornadoes and floods are spreading. Strong hurricanes are becoming more common and more destructive.

D)People burn plenty of coal, oil and natural gas. As a result of this billions of tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) are released into the atmosphere every year. CO2 is a greenhouse gas that traps the sun’s radiation within the atmosphere so the concentration of CO2 increases. As a result of this, temperatures in different parts of the planet rise.

E)Some cars are designed to work using electric power, without gasoline. It means that they don’t pollute the atmosphere, cost less and reduce the need for oil. Such cars are reliable and have interesting designs. However, they have a few bad points. Many have a maximum speed limit of about 50 miles per hour. Most cities are not ready for the appearance of such cars on their roads.

F)Environmental organisations have been discussing ways of saving the rain forests for many years. However, we are still facing huge losses in the Amazon. People think that rainforests have already had enough attention. They have been discussed in the press for years. Unfortunately, the rainforest is still in danger and can be destroyed completely.

G)Environmental problems are serious and we have to deal with them immediately. There may not be easy solutions but we simply can’t continue living as if everything was fine. These problems aren’t going to disappear by themselves. If we want to keep this planet a healthy place for our grandchildren, it’s time to do everything we can to stop the catastrophe.

1)A change in people’s attitude

2)A problem still unsolved

3)A new state organisation

4)A governmental plan of action

5)No time to waste

6)An eco-friendly means of transport

7)A set of dangerous signs

8) A reason for global warming

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A)Nothing brings back memories like a particular smell. Whether it’s of Christmas pine, your grandma’s fresh-baked gingerbread, or cookies, the scents of Christmas are truly special. In the days leading up to this day, the house fills with the wonderful rich, spicy smells of vanilla, cinnamon and ginger coming from the kitchen, promising delights to come.

B)Some of the most pleasant scents after a hard day are vanilla, lavender, and scents with cinnamon or ginger. Each combination of aromas can influence you positively. For example, vanilla’s sweet scent can help you if you feel sad, lonely, or depressed. It is a naturally warming aroma. Cinnamon is good in case you feel tired; it also has a wonderful effect on your nerves, calming you down.

C)The ability to smell is linked to our ability to remember things. When you first smell a new thing, you connect it to an event, a person, or even a moment. As a result, later the smell of cookies might remind you of spending time at your grandmother’s house when you were a small child. When you come across the smell a second or third time, the link is already there, ready to bring out a certain mood.

D)There are certain smells we can identify from a mile away – almost as if they’re preprogrammed into our minds. One of them is vanilla. Today, vanilla is in our coffee, perfumes, tea, home products, body lotion, and everywhere! Both the scent and taste of vanilla are very strong and long-lasting. It is considered one of the most popular scents and flavours in the world.

E)A new study suggests that we can smell not only aromas but feelings as well – fear, happiness, disgust and joy. The experiments proved that we can find out how a person feels even if we neither see nor hear him. Nerves inside our nose take informative messages about the person and his emotional state to the brain. However, the mechanism of how this happens is not yet clear.

F)Our sense of smell does 80% of the job when we taste various foods. Without a sense of smell you can’t taste the difference between an apple and a potato or a glass of juice and a cup of cold coffee. This is why, when our nose is blocked by a cold, most foods seem tasteless. Our sense of smell becomes stronger when we are hungry.

G)There are many good reasons to believe that we all have our own particular smell. Research has proved that our smell might distinguish us from others just as our face does. Our smell is as personal as our fingerprints. For centuries the police have used this phenomenon to catch criminals. Maybe one day they will use our scent too.

1)A widely used aroma

2)Makes meals different

3)A relaxing effect

4)Scents and colours

5)Another unique characteristic

6)Holiday scents

7)Creating memories

8) Smelling emotions

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A)Thanks to television and films, Scotland is often seen by the rest of the world as a magical country, a land of misty mountains and the home of a lake creature called Nessie. This is the image most people have in mind. The truth, however, is completely different from the way the world thinks of Scotland. You may be surprised to find out that most Scots live in the lowlands and don’t believe in Nessie.

B)Scotland is much more than green hills and picturesque valleys. It’s dynamic and cosmopolitan, with a colourful history of invention and innovation. It’s the home of big businesses and a centre of new medical and scientific development. Each year, it hosts the world’s biggest contemporary arts festivals. Scotland is an exciting place to live in, particularly for a young person.

C)Scottish heather, a small bush with flowers, is the floral symbol of the country. The colour of the flowers usually varies from purple to lilac, but they can also be white. In the past, the Scots believed that they would never be captured by enemies and would win victories if they wore white heather. Today, when getting married, girls add white heather to bouquets to bring fortune to their family.

D)Heather has grown in Scotland as far back as its history goes. This has turned it into a kind of household good. Heather honey is rich in minerals, and was traditionally used in medicinal drinks. Thousands of years ago, dried heather was used to make perfumes, and the tough stems were used to make ropes. On many of the northern Scottish islands, heather played a major role in the construction of houses.

E)Scotland is an excellent destination for open-air activities all year round. Its lakes and coastline are ideal for boating and rowing and have some of the best sea-kayaking in the world. The rivers are perfect for fishing and the mountains are wonderful for hill climbing and skiing.Scotland is also good for walkers. You can enjoy easy family walks or more difficult mountain hikes.

F)The Highland Games in Scotland date back to long before Scotland’s written history. The various athletics allowed men to demonstrate their physical power and the skills needed for battle and survival. The Games today still include the athletic competitions in their original form together with dancing contests. All the competitors wear kilts. Traditional bagpipe music accompanies all the events.

G)Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom, occupying the northern third of theisland of Great Britain. Edinburgh, the country’s capital and second largest city, is one ofEurope’s financial centres. The population of the country is a little over 5 million people. The currency is the pound sterling although the Bank of Scotland issues its own notes and coins.

1)A talisman for luck

2)The wildlife of the country

3)The modern side of the country

4)Useful in many ways

5)A country profile

6)A false stereotype

7)Opportunities for different sports

8) The national sporting event

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A)A woolsack race is one of the British local festivals that could be called strange. It started in Tetbury, a wool town, in the 17th century when young men wanted to demonstrate their physical strength. Since then, every spring men and women compete in teams to carry heavy woolsacks up and down the hill. The race events are complemented by a funfair and musical entertainments.

B)Midsummer was the time for the Cheese Rolling Ceremony in many places. Competitors gathered at the top of a hill. The Master of the Ceremonies let a heavy head of cheese roll down the hill. Brave runners raced down to be the first to catch it. However, the event was cancelled in 2010 due to safety reasons.

C)Another cheese ceremony is popular in the village of Randwick. On the first Sunday in May people roll three cheeses from right to left around the church. After rolling, the villagers cut up and share one of the cheeses. They believe that eating cheese brings health to their families.

D)The village of Marshfield, England, is famous for its Paperboys procession. People dressed in paper costumes go through the streets. They start from the market place and perform the town’s unique character play along the road. By noon they have done more than six performances for several hundred people.

E)Every January Up Helly Aa is celebrated in Scotland. People dressed in Viking costumes and helmets go through the streets of Lerwick. They hold flaming torches, sticks with the special material on the top which burns in order to give light. The strongest participants carry a full size model of a Viking ship to an open field. There the people throw lit torches into the ship and burn it.

F)Melbourne Cup Day is held in Australia, in November. Although Cup Day is a public holiday only in the city of Melbourne, the rest of the country refuses to be left out of the event. People gather around televisions and computers, whether at work, at home, or wherever they are, just to watch this world famous horse race. This event is often called ‘the race that stops the nation’.

G)In a village in Eastern England, an unusual race takes place every year. Three groups take part in the race – adults, children (under 11s) and teenagers. Each participant receives a frying pan with a pancake and has to race from one end of a field to the other, throwing the pancake into the air and catching it in the frying pan without dropping it. The winner is the first to cross the line.

2)Eating together

3)Important for the whole country

4)Lifting weights

5)Cooking competition

6)Cheese Rolling

7)In memory of the past events

8) A cookery sprint

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A)As in many other European countries, Britain’s main newspapers are losing their readers. Fewer and fewer people are buying broadsheets and tabloids at the newsagent’s. In the last quarter of the twentieth century people became richer and now they can choose other forms of leisure activity. Also, there is the Internet which is a convenient and inexpensive alternative source of news.

B)The ‘Sunday papers’ are so called because that is the only day on which they are published. Sunday papers are usually thicker than the dailies and many of them have six or more sections. Some of them are ‘sisters’ of the daily newspapers. It means they are published by the same company but not on week days.

C)Another proof of the importance of ‘the papers’ is the morning ‘paper round’. Most newsagents organise these. It has become common that more than half of the country’s readers get their morning paper brought to their door by a teenager. The boy or girl usually gets up at around 5:30 a.m. every day including Sunday to earn a bit of pocket money.

D)The quality papers or broadsheets are for the better educated readers. They devote much space to politics and other ‘serious’ news. The popular papers, or tabloids, sell to a much larger readership. They contain less text and a lot more pictures. They use bigger headlines and write in a simpler style of English. They concentrate on ‘human interest stories’ which often means scandal.

E)Not so long ago in Britain if you saw someone reading a newspaper you could tell what kind it was without even checking the name. It was because the quality papers were printed on very large pages called ‘broadsheet’. You had to have expert turning skills to be able to read more than one page. The tabloids were printed on much smaller pages which were much easier to turn.

F)The desire to attract more readers has meant that in the twentieth century sometimes even the broadsheets in Britain look rather ‘popular’. They give a lot of coverage to scandal and details of people’s private lives.  The reason is simple. What matters most for all newspaper publishers is making a profit. They would do anything to sell more copies.

G)If you go into any newsagent’s shop in Britain you will not find only newspapers. You will also see rows and rows of magazines for almost every imaginable taste. There are specialist magazines for many popular pastimes. There are around 3,000 of them published in the country and they are widely read, especially by women. Magazines usually list all the TV and radio programmes for the coming week and many British readers prefer them to newspapers.

1)Traditional delivery

2)Loss of popularity

3)Money above privacy

4)The best-known newspapers

5)Focus on different readers

6)The successful competitor

7)Size makes a difference

8) Weekend reading

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A)The world’s deepest lake, the Baikal, is in Siberia. It is also the largest freshwater lake in Eurasia and the oldest lake on the Earth. At least 1,500 unique species live there — they cannot be found anywhere else on the planet!  The water in the lake is so clear that if you drop a coin, it can be clearly seen a hundred feet below the water.

B)People who live in the Baikal region believe that it’s a unique and mysterious place. According to them, the water from Lake Baikal can cure different illnesses, gives you strength and clears your mind. They also say that the lake was formed millions of years ago when a huge, hot rock fell to earth. It melted the ice around and that was how Lake Baikal appeared. The story about the meteorite has, however, never been proved by scientists.

C)The lake has also become famous for its unique fish and birds that are not found in other waters. The lake is home to more than 1000 animal species. Among them there are the world’s only freshwater seals. There’s no evidence of how the seals got to the lake but they obviously enjoy their life there. Huge brown bears often come to the lake out of the forest to hunt and fish.

D)Though Lake Baikal is located in a very remote place, and is difficult to reach in autumn and winter, it attracts thousands of visitors every year. A chance to see this unique place is worth the long journey! On the banks of Lake Baikal you can stay in a modern, comfortable hotel, take part in hiking tours and enjoy the untouched natural beauty. People who have visited Lake Baikal once want to return to the place again and again.

E)However, the growing popularity of the lake and the industrial development of the region have caused ecological problems. The safety of this unique natural ecosystem has been discussed at an international level. Now Lake Baikal is on the list of heritage sites protected by UNESCO. A federal state law about the conservation of the lake was also supported in Russia.

F)The lake attracts not only tourists but also many wildlife researchers, biologists and even archaeologists.  The world famous explorer and scientist, Jacques Cousteau, and his team spent lots of time studying the deep waters of Lake Baikal. They also shot a film about their research that was broadcast by major TV channels all over the world.

G)Everyone considers the Siberian climate very severe, which is perfectly true for the Baikal region. The winters there are really freezing — the average temperature is as low as -25 degrees Celsius. Due to its location in the middle of the continent, the place is characterised by a sharp contrast between winter and summer temperatures. The summers are generally cool, with a few hot days. The sun shines brightly above the lake till late autumn.

1)Local legends

2)Special in many ways

3)Tourist аttraction

4)Diverse wildlife

5)Protection of the ecosystem

6)Extinct species

7)Scientific expeditions

8) Harsh climate

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A)Lions have caught people’s imagination for centuries. They are stars in documentary movies and books; their images can be found on emblems, coats of arms and shields.  Lions live in the jungle, open woodlands or thick grasslands where they hunt. In their environment, lions are at the top of the food chain — adult lions have no natural enemies. If we call a person ‘a lion’ it means he is strong, aggressive and important.

B)Lions do not look the same as other members of the large group of cats: tigers, leopards, and jaguars. Adult male lions are much larger and have thick brown hair around their neck, which is called a mane. No other cats have manes. The mane makes the lion look more impressive and protects the animal in fights with other lions for territory.

C)Lions live in large social groups called ‘prides’. A pride can have up to thirty female lions and their children. Inside the pride there are mothers, sisters, and cousins. The pride has a close relationship and never accepts a stranger. They mark their territory by scent.  There are very strict rules in the pride and everyone has to observe them.

D)Lions and lionesses have different roles in the pride. Females do most of the hunting. Together, lionesses guard and look after their cubs. The little ones feel safer and more confident with so many ‘nannies’ around. It also reduces the chance that they are left hungry. The females usually exchange their hunting and home duties during the day.

E)Male lions spend most of their day sleeping or relaxing. While it may look like the lionesses do all the work in the pride, lions play an important role too. Though they bring less food and hunt less, they mark their territory and protect it from strangers. A lion from outside the pride is very dangerous for cubs. If he gets into the pride, he may kill all the little ones there.

F)When new lions are born, they are not shown to the rest of the pride for a month, until the cubs become strong enough. Later they start playing together and have a lot of playmates. If needed, any lioness becomes their nurse and teacher. Small lions have to learn hunting and survival skills. When they are two years old, male lions leave the pride to live on their own. The females may stay with their mothers for the rest of their lives.

G)In the wild, lions eat mainly meat. That’s why they greatly depend on hunting. Their favourite dishes are zebras, deer, and even young elephants and rhinos. When hungry, they chase mice, birds and reptiles. Very rarely they may eat fruit and vegetables, but it is never their first choice. In zoos and national parks, where the lions cannot hunt, they are offered special meals made of beef and chicken.

1)King of the wild

2)Different from the others

3)Early years

4)Hunting habits

5)A big family

6)Team work

7)The lion’s responsibilities

8) Their essential diet

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A)The London Underground is the quickest and easiest way of getting around the city.  Today it is as important a landmark of the capital as Big Ben or the London Eye. The underground is often called the Tube because of its shape: tube shaped tunnels, stations and trains. The Tube became an official name for the first time in the early 1900s, after the Central London Railway (now the Central Line) was named the Twopenny Tube.

B)In 1956 the red London double-decker bus appeared on the London streets for the first time. At that time, the London buildings had gone black because of smoke from the coal used for heating. What’s more, due to the local climate and lack of wind, there was always fog in the city. Under such gloomy circumstances, the bright-red London double-decker bus became a sensation! In the past 50 years, the red double-decker has become an icon of London.

C)Oyster is an electronic smart card ticket. Regardless of whether you live in London, or you are a tourist, a day trip visitor, or a regular visitor to the capital, the Oyster Card is definitely the easiest way to travel around the London Transport system. Simply touch the card on the yellow reader to get through the Tube gates or board other London public transport. The card doesn’t even need to be removed from your purse or wallet to work.

D)The London Transport Museum is worth visiting. Entrance is not free but the price of £15 for a year pass is more than reasonable.  The exhibitions displayed in the museum present London transport in its historical context. There are more than 80 vehicles, including a red London bus and the world’s first Underground train. The galleries are full of interactive exhibits for young people to play on – including real buses and trains!

E)In London there are around 23 000 taxis. The taxi drivers know every corner of London because all of them have to take an exam, called the Knowledge. This exam supposes that the candidate driver can recognize most of the 20 000 London streets and knows how to choose the shortest route between two points. Each taxi driver should also know all the parks, cinemas, theaters and museums in the city.

F)Over the last few years, cycling around London has been getting more and more popular. The reasons are obvious — there is no ‘carbon waste’ and it prevents obesity and heart disease. For tourists, it is often also the quickest and the easiest way to see London, with the bonus of getting some exercise. The casual user hires a bike at one of the numerous bike stations, rides it where he or she wants and then returns it to any of the docking stations.

G)If you’ve ever been to Britain, one of the first things you will have noticed is that the British drive on the wrong side of the road. They drive on the left! The reason for this goes back to the days when people travelled on horses. Most people are right-handed and the left is the natural side to ride on if you are on horseback — you need your right hand to hold a sword in case of any trouble.

1)Capital experts

2)A place to see history

3)Popular tourist routes

4)Named after its form

5)An easy way to pay for the trip

6)A healthy form of transport

7)A contrast to the dark city

8) Why driving on the other side

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A)New Zealand is an island country. Cruises to New Zealand are a perfect way to explore over 15,000 km of coastline and to enjoy the spectacular landscapes this diverse country has to offer. Cruising to New Zealand is a well-established tradition. Until the 1960s, it was the only way to arrive in the country.

B)The climate is pleasant in all seasons, though it’s rather windy.  Wellington, the country’s capital, is known as the Windy City. The strongest winds blow from the south. The wind speed and direction can be seen from the flag flown from the Parliament. A large flag is flown only on calm days and a small flag is flown when windy days are expected.

C)More than a century before Columbus crossed the Atlantic to discover America, the Maoris sailed over thousands of kilometers of ocean to settle in New Zealand. They made their great journey in double canoes. Today, Maoris make up 14% of the country’s population and their history, language and traditions are central to New Zealand’s identity.

D)Before humans settled in New Zealand, it had an incredible variety of birds. As they had no natural enemies to fly away from, wings became unnecessary for some birds. When Maori and, later, Europeans came to New Zealand, they started to hunt birds. They also brought predators, including rats. The new enemies and loss of territory led to the reduction in the birds’ populations and to the complete extinction of some species.

E)Ever since the first ‘Lord of the Rings’ film was released in 2001, New Zealand has been known as the Home of Middle-earth. New Zealand’s dramatic scenery plays the mythical world of Middle-earth on the big screen in both ‘The Lord of the Rings’ and ‘The Hobbit’ trilogies. More than 250 places throughout the country were used as locations for the films, which made New Zealand the greatest destination for Tolkien enthusiasts.

F)Auckland is the largest city, and is sometimes called the ‘crime capital’ of the country. Violent crime is not common in New Zealand but minor crimes are committed there quite often. A major problem is theft, primarily from cars -travellers should avoid leaving valuables in vehicles, no matter where they are parked. Actually, according to criminal statistics, tourist parking areas and car parks are the worst places.

G)Auckland’s diverse landscapes provide countless opportunities to be impressed: rainforests and black sand beaches, picturesque country gardens and calm bays. However, this region is spotted with 48 volcanic cones. Rangitoto Island, just a 25-minute ferry ride from Auckland, is the region’s most iconic volcano and a favourite day trip destination for visitors. But who knows when the trip might be interrupted?

1)Beware of thieves

 2)The best way to get there and get around

3)A beautiful but dangerous land

4)Weather watching

5)National sports

 6)The first inhabitants

 7)Attractions for fantasy book fans

  8) Once safe, now endangered

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A)Bamboo is one of the fastest-growing plants on the Earth. Some people think bamboo is a tree, but it is not – bamboo is grass though some species can grow over 30 meters! People use bamboo for different purposes: to build and decorate houses, to produce textiles and paper, to make food and drinks. Recently, a new practical application for bamboo has been suggested: in the bicycle industry.

B)More and more Londoners prefer to use bicycles to get to their offices in the city centre. The latest model of this popular form of transport was presented at the motor show in Birmingham. It was made from bamboo. The designers, from Oxford Brooks University, say they have invented a bamboo bike not only for ecological reasons. According to them, bamboo is as safe as metal.

C)The new bikes will be produced in Yorkshire. At the beginning the price of a bike might be rather high — about 1700 pounds. Nevertheless, the designers expect that the model will be successful on the market. Its growing popularity will finally bring down the price. By the year 2014, the company is planning to produce five hundred thousand bamboo bikes for the British.

D)One of the inventors of the new technology, James Bruton, teaches at the University. During one of his seminars, students were testing different materials and chose bamboo. They discovered that its characteristics were ideal for long journeys because it stopped vibration. The whole journey becomes more pleasant than on a metal bike and the cyclist will be less tired.

E)Not everyone, however, believed in the safety of bamboo. Skeptics doubted if it could stand long distances. They argued that a metal frame helped the wheels turn faster. As a result, engineers decided to test the bamboo in a real situation. They rode twenty kilometers in the hills. The experiment was successful in spite of the difficult conditions.

F)During the project, designers had to solve another problem: what sort of bamboo to use, as not all of them were suitable for making a bike. Finally, from more than a thousand varieties, the scientists chose only one. Another important detail is that the bamboo should be cut at a definite stage of growth.

G)The director of the Raw Bikes Company, Rachel Hammond, says she would support the idea of a bamboo farm. She has been interested in bamboo bikes for a long time. Once she rode the bike, she felt comfortable and happy. Now Rachel has an idea to make bamboo bikes for import. Although production takes several days, she is sure the model is attractive and will have a long life.

1)Useful in many ways

2)An unusual material

3)A real enthusiast

4)Ambitious sales plans

5)А road test

6)A cycling competition

7)Excellent qualities

8) The right kind of bamboo

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A)Coca Cola appeared in Atlanta, Georgia, 1886. Doctor John Pemberton made a special syrup, but he kept its components secret. He added some mineral water to it and took the new product to the chemist’s. There the syrup was sold for five cents a glass. Pemberton told everyone that Coca-Cola cured many illnesses, including headaches, stomachaches, and nervous breakdowns.

B)Coca Cola was first sold in ordinary bottles. In 1915, the company held a competition to create a new bottle for their drink. They said it should be a bottle that would make Coca Cola different from all other drinks. Even today the shape of Coca Cola bottle is one of the most recognized packages on the planet…»even in the dark!».

C)The famous Coca Cola symbol was created by John Pemberton’s colleague, Mr. Robinson. He thought that two letters «C» would look great in advertising. Besides, the red and white colours were simple and effective. Red was energetic and bright and so would attract young people. As for the style of writing, it was just popular in the United States during that period.

D)Before the 1930s, Coca Cola was only considered to be a drink for warm weather so the company started a campaign to remind people that Coca Cola was a great choice in any month. For this a talented artist drew pictures of a happy Santa Claus enjoying a drink of Coke. The pictures were published in magazines and made Cola even more popular.

E)Coca Cola was one of the first companies that invested money in public projects. For example, the company is proud to be an old and devoted partner of the Olympic Games. This connection began in 1928 with the Games in Amsterdam. Since then the company has sponsored lots of football, hockey, and basketball competitions.

F)The Coca Cola Collectors Club was formed in 1974 by a small group of people. Today it has become international with more than 5,000 people from 28 countries. Club members collect everything connected with Coca Cola: bottles, posters, newspaper articles, postcards – everything. They sometimes meet to exchange their treasures.

G)Today there are 16 special variants of the original Coca Cola recipe. Some have less sugar or no sugar at all. Such Coke is chosen by those who want to keep fit. Children may prefer a cherry or a vanilla flavour. The drink also changes from country to country, reflecting national preferences. For example, if you travel to France, you can try the unusual orange Coca Cola.

1)Supporting sports

2)A remarkable container design

3)A universal medicine

4)A smart symbol

5)The drink ingredients

6)Good in any season

7)A fan society

8) The drink varieties

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A)Sport can be a great way to develop life skills. It helps you to learn about teamwork, self-control, and competition. You set your goals and do your best to reach them. In a good sporting environment, children have the opportunity to make new friends and develop new interests. Sport also keeps you fit and greatly improves your health. If you do sports, you have no weight problems.

B)German planes have finally managed to save a climber from one of the world’s highest mountain peaks. Tom Gummar, a Slovenian, was trying to climb the mountain when he ran into difficulties. He had spent nearly a week six-thousand metres above the ground. All the previous attempts to save him had been unsuccessful because of snow storms. Only yesterday the planes managed to reach him and now his health is improving.

C)The Ancient Olympic Games were held in Greece. The beginning of these games is surrounded with mystery and legend. One of the most popular myths says that Heracles was the first who called the Games «Olympic». He started the tradition of holding them every four years. The legend continues that he built the Olympic stadium in honour of his father.

D)Former Wimbledon winner Maria Sharapova is back at the US Open semi-finals. «It’s been a long road back to the tournament,» said Sharapova, who spent 10 months off court with a shoulder injury that needed serious treatment. “Now I’m in good shape again and hope to repeat the 2006 title win,” she added.

E)Chelsea was founded in 1905 and it soon entered the Football League. In the early years they saw little success. From the very beginning Chelsea had a reputation for inviting famous footballers to play for them but the team changed dramatically only after a new coach, Ted Drake, joined it. He led them to their first main victory: they won the national championship.

F)Yesterday Andy Wistler played one of his best matches at the Australian Open. Due to his wonderful performance he easily won three sets and the match was finished very quickly. It was impossible for his opponent Yang Chung to play at the same level and the match was finished in a very short time. Still, it should be mentioned that Yang Chung was an experienced Chinese tennis player.

G)Janet Evans retired from swimming in 1996. She was sure her best days were behind her. She had won three gold medals at the Seoul Olympics and had set world records that had stood for years. Everyone was surprised when Janet announced her return. She said she is hoping to become part of the US Olympic team. A big decision after a 16 year break!

1)Winning a quick victory

2)Saving a sportsman

3)Fit and healthy again

4)The first sporting events

5)The club history

6)Sport and its advantages

7)The swimmer comes back

8) Champions award ceremony

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A)Christ’s Hospital school was founded in the 16th century. Its uniform at that time consisted of a long blue coat, a leather belt and yellow socks. Today students still wear the same uniform because they think it’s a symbol that unites them. There was some talk about making the uniform more modern, but it was decided to keep the original uniform.

B)Nola Ochs from the USA is the world’s oldest university graduate. She says she has always loved learning and has never lost her taste for knowledge. She started university when she was over 90. Her example proves that age is not important if you want to be a student. You can acquire new skills at any age.

C)The Dublin College of English offers one, two or three week Football and English Programmes. They are for young people who are interested in both learning English with native speakers and practising football. The students enjoy the friendly, inspiring atmosphere in the classrooms, after which they improve their skills on the school football pitch.

D)Harrow is a prestigious boys’ school in northern London with a strict uniform policy. You can easily recognise a Harrow student by his hat, which is part of the uniform. All boys have to wear their hats every day when going to or from lessons. Some students are allowed to wear a different scarf, tie or jumper but the hat should always be there. Wearing it remains a must.

E)One of the recent trends is the growing number of elderly students in universities and colleges. It is believed that the elderly and the young can benefit from studying in a mixed class. The older ones are quicker at detailed and logical tasks. On the other hand, younger students can often help their older classmates with new gadgets and technologies.

F)When it comes to studying English abroad, try to get as much information about the school as possible. Asking the right questions will help you save money, time, and avoid culture shock. Remember that the school should provide you both with good teaching and with an unforgettable experience so besides everyday classes, social activities should be part of the programme.

G)In most British schools children start studying a foreign language at 11, but many are happy to give up languages completely at 14. Research suggests that students think that it is more difficult to get good marks in Modern Foreign Languages than in other subjects such as Science or History. They also say that foreign languages are less fun than other lessons like PE or Art.

1)Learn and play

2)A less popular subject

3)Never too late to learn

4)The essential piece of uniform

5)Keeping the tradition

6)The advantages of learning together

7)Choosing the place to learn

8) School exchange programmes

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A)When you think of the Irish, you often picture a red-haired person dressed all in green. However, it’s just a popular myth which has grown into a tradition, particularly in the United States. It’s customary in Ireland to wear green clothes only on St. Patrick’s Day. Lots of people are tricked by this cliché. However, originally, the colour associated with Saint Patrick was not green, but blue.

B)In Ireland, the colour green was long considered to bring bad fortune. The reason is that in Irish folklore green is the favourite color of the Good People (the proper name for fairies). Myths run that they are likely to steal people, especially children, who wear too much of the colour. In the past, a girl would never wear anything green on her wedding day.

C)Christmas is a very important celebration in Ireland. After dinner on Christmas Eve, it is common for families to leave milk and bread on the table as a sign of friendliness and kindness. Another custom is to leave the door unlocked. A lit candle is left in a window during the night. It represents help for any traveller who is passing by.

D)Potatoes form the basis for many traditional Irish dishes. They are eaten boiled, mashed, fried and baked. Potatoes are mixed with cabbage or green onions to make traditional Irish dishes. They are also made into potato cakes and used in soups or stews. It’s common to find potatoes cooked in two different ways on the same dinner plate.

E)The shamrock is still a popular sign of good fortune in Ireland. It is believed that anyone who possesses one will be blessed with fortune in everything, even in gambling, and will be saved from the evil of witches. There are certain conditions to be met so that its power remains effective: the owner of the shamrock must keep it away from the public eye and never give it to anyone else.

F)The name Gulliver is known to everyone due to the book or the film about the fantastic trip of the English doctor. However, not all of us remember the name of the author  Jonathan Swift, an Irish writer, who was born in Dublin, Ireland, in 1667. In his book Gulliver’s Travels a man went to an island where strange tiny people lived. His life there was full of adventures and dangers, he met there friends and enemies.

G)Ireland is known as the native land of limericks – short humorous poems that have five lines. They make people laugh and are easy to remember! Lots of poets and writers were fond of limericks. The word ‘limerick’ probably comes from the Irish town of Limerick. The short poem has made the town known all over the world.

1)A false stereotype

2)An unlucky symbol

3)A colourful present

4)A world famous journey

5)One and the same name

6)The national food

7)A talisman for luck

8) Old holiday traditions

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A)The history of Scotland is rich and varied but most people would also describe it as violent and bloody. Scotland’s history appears to be just an endless list of battles between the Scottish clans and their close neighbours, the English. But if you look carefully at the history of Scotland, you will be surprised by the great influence that this small nation has had upon the development of Western civilization.

B)Of all the scary places in Scotland, the castles provide us with the most terrifying stories. You need courage to visit them. The castles are known for numerous murders and cases of violent death. Edinburgh castle is at the top of the list. According to legend, there is the ghost of a headless drummer and the ghost of a piper, whose music can be heard even above the noise of Edinburgh’s traffic.

C)To decide on what to wear for a walk can be a challenge in Scotland! This tiny country is surrounded by so much water that Scottish weather can change at any moment. In fact, sometimes you feel as though you’ve experienced three (or even all four) seasons in just one day! This may explain why Scots are fascinated by the weather, and follow daily weather reports very closely.

D)Scotland has 30,000 miles of roads. Travelling around Scotland by car can be challenging for foreign visitors. When travelling by car, tourists should be very careful. When they see something they wish to look at, they mustn’t slow down as they could be hit by the car behind. Tourists should also remember that Scottish motorways have a speed limit of 70 miles per hour.

E)There are many breeds of Scottish dogs. One of the most famous is the Collie or Scotch colliethat comes from the Scottish highlands. It has been bred for many years to help shepherds. Some people say the name Collie comes from the Gaelic word for useful.  The Collie is a dog that can do many jobs. The Collie can guard property as well as search for a missing chicken or drive sheep. The dogs can be taught how to open doors and gates.

F)Scotland is a country where tourism offers visitors an opportunity to enjoy nature at its best. As you explore the Scottish countryside, be sure to look out for Daubenton’s bats. These tiny creatures with funny short ears weigh from 7 to 11 grams but they are vital for the ecosystem as they keep insect populations in check, eating lots of small insects every day.

G)For active and curious people there is a lot to do in the Scottish Highlands! You can explore castles and visit museums. The famous Loch Ness is situated here and you’ll find ancient castles, which can be visited. If you like something more adventurous, you might try horse riding, mountain biking, kayaking and sailing. There is no end of things to do in the Highlands so you can be sure you’ll enjoy yourself there.

1)А small but important country

2)Sights for the brave

3)Mind your driving

4)You’ll never get bored

5)Difficult to predict

6)Traditional industries

7)Keeping the balance in nature

8) Helpful assistants

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A)Geographically, the Wild West refers to the states west of the Mississippi River. The American West is both a place and an idea. In people’s minds, it was a place that promised excitement because it was new and unknown. From the middle of the 18th century to the beginning of the 20th century, lots of people pushed their way westward trying to find land, better lives, gold and silver, and, sometimes, to escape the law.

B)Due to books and films, the first thing that comes to mind about the American West is cowboys, rodeos and riding broncos. Bronco is the nickname for a wild horse. When a bronco jumps, it kicks its back legs trying to throw the rider off. Nowadays, there are popular rodeo competitions where cowboys try to remain on aggressive broncos as long as possible. To entertain the public they also lasso cows and bulls.

C)Yellowstone Park, the first American national park, is situated in the western states. The park has a great variety of natural features – waterfalls, plateaus, canyons, hot springs and geysers. It is also famous for its diverse wildlife and harsh beauty. Camping and backpacking are encouraged at Yellowstone, but visitors must be careful. A few careless or unlucky people have already been killed by angry bears.

D)In the 1970s and 1980s, people from all over the United States moved to Colorado to work in the mining industry. New citizens of the state capital, Denver, were attracted to the city by its location in the Rocky Mountains and its clean air. However, due to the rapid development of Denver, they got into serious trouble –growing air pollution. Car engines did not burn fuel efficiently at a high altitude and thick smog hung over the city.

E)In 1935, the federal government selected St. Louis, Missouri, as the site for a new national monument – The Gateway Arch.  The memorial, also known as the Gateway to the West, was to honor the pioneers exploring the American West.  Eero Saarinen, an architect, won the nationwide competition with his project for a giant steel arch. Since the Gateway Arch was opened in 1965, millions of people visit it every year.

F)The Mississippi River is often mentioned in Mark Twain’s books. In his novel, Life on the Mississippi, the famous writer describes the history of the river and his own experiences related to it.  There is also a collection of tales that either take place on the river or are associated with it. Another of Mark Twain’s famous works, the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, tells us about a journey down the river.

G)Hawaii is the USA’s 50th state. It’s a popular holiday destination for the citizens, as well as for foreign tourists. Along with Florida, it’s one of a few states where it’s usually sunny and hot all the year round. Hawaii is made up of 132 tropical islands, though people live only on seven of them. Tourism is Hawaii’s biggest industry. People are attracted to the islands because of their beautiful scenery and beaches. Surfers come to experience the high waves.

1)Eco-friendly business

2)A good place for holidays

3)A silent hero of American literature

4)In search of luck and happiness

5)To those who went west

6)An unexpected environmental problem  

7)Great sights and dangerous creatures

8) Dangerous sport

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A)The popularity of social networking sites such as Vkontakte, Facebook, MySpace, and Classmates has risen more than four times from 2005 to 2009. Many users say these sites are good for our society, but others are sure that there are more dangers in them than benefits. Your attitude to such websites depends on your age, job, interests and way of life.

B)Social networks promote communication with friends and family, they give people necessary and useful computer skills and teach them to express their ideas in a clear way. Another thing is that the sites let people create new relationships and reconnect with old friends. In every way, more communication, even online, makes connections stronger.

C)Social networking sites make people spend more time online and less time communicating face-to-face. The sites have many time-wasting activities. You stay online longer than you planned and do nothing serious or important. Experts say that teenagers spend about nine hours every week on social networking sites.

D)A big risk about social networks is that teenagers are careless. They don’t worry that their personal information and photos could be open to lots of people. Also the sites don’t guarantee that their registered members are who they say they are. If a person says he is James Burns, a college student, we have to believe him. We cannot check his real name or occupation.

E)Psychologists say that social networking sites can have serious disadvantages. It is hard for children to have real conversations and make friends. They become selfish personalities and lose interest in real life. Parents spend less time with their children and all members of the family spend less time with each other because they are using the Internet instead of communicating in person.

F)Internet users spend most of their time on social networks and blogs. Users in the USA spend about five and a half hours every month on their favourite site. And the number is growing. Russians spend 6.6 hours monthly on social networking sites. It is more than people in any other country. For example, in Europe it is 3.7 hours a month.

G)New research shows that social networking sites can be used in schools. Teachers should find ways to use them in class. It would help students to learn how to get information from Internet resources and share it with classmates. Students would also be able to express themselves creatively and present themselves better.

1)Worrying time statistics

2)Hidden dangers

3)New communication opportunities

4)Communication problems in real life

5)Different opinions

6)The best social networking site

7)Time eaters

8) Prospects in education

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A)Coffee was first found in Eastern Africa in the area we know today as Ethiopia. A popular legend says that one day a man called Kaldi was watching his goats eating grass and leaves. He noticed that after eating berries from a certain bush the goats became very active. Curious, Kaldi tried the berries himself. He found that these berries gave him additional energy. The story quickly spread throughout the region.

B)The first coffee berries were transported from Ethiopia to Arabian countries and then they were cultivated in Yemen. From there, coffee travelled to Turkey where coffee beans were roasted for the first time over open fires. The roasted beans were crushed and then boiled in water, creating the drink we enjoy today. Finally, in the seventeenth century coffee arrived inFrance, Britain and Italy.

C)The first coffeehouses opened in Mecca and quickly became popular centres of social and political activity. The government believed that coffee stimulated radical thinking, and the governor even thought it might unite his opposition. As a result, coffee was forbidden inMecca. The same thing happened in Turkey a century later, when coffee drinkers were severely punished.

D)They say, in 1776 the thirteen American colonies adopted coffee as their national drink instead of tea. When the British tried to raise the tax on tea, Americans refused to buy it and switched to coffee. In fact, by drinking coffee Americans demonstrated their political views and their dislike for the British – the famous tea-lovers.

E)The Italians drink their espresso with sugar, the Germans and Swiss add an equal part of hot chocolate, the Mexicans prefer it with cinnamon, and the Belgians – with chocolate. Coffee drinkers in the Middle East usually add cardamom and spices. The Egyptians, on the other hand, are extremely fond of pure, strong coffee. They add neither milk nor cream.

F)Plain and simple, nothing else. People discovered that if they drank coffee slowly they could taste bitterness, sourness, sweetness and saltiness. For a long time such a taste was new and more than enough. It needed no improvement. Only later did they start experimenting with coffee by adding milk, chocolate, and other flavors. However, nothing can hide the taste of real coffee.

G)When the first European coffeehouses opened, they quickly grew into places where people played chess, exchanged gossip, sang and danced. Coffeehouses were very popular because anyone could go and enjoy a cup of the drink. The price of a cup of coffee was reasonable. European coffee houses became meeting points for intellectuals, writers and businessmen.

1)Coffee in the New World

2)The original taste of coffee

3)A chance discovery

4)A place for communication

5)An illegal drink

6)A long journey to Europe

7)Growing coffee plants

8) Different recipes

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A)Street art can be described as art that is developed in public spaces and above all in the street. It can mean a lot of different things including graffiti, poster art, wall paintings, and just about any artwork that is displayed in public places. Typically, street art is used to separate public-space artwork from illegal graffiti and vandalism.

B)The start of street art is closely connected to graffiti, which appeared in New York in the 1970s. The American artists soon became an inspiration for a number of other young street artists all over the world. For the following ten years graffiti grew more and more popular and was soon joined by new forms of street art including street installations, street sculptures and 3D pavement illusions.

C)Street artists are often associated with opposition. Their artwork is considered a crime and vandalism and the artists may be arrested for damaging property so the artists prefer to use nicknames and create their drawings mostly at night. They are not looking for fame, especially in countries where graffiti is still illegal.

D)Kurt Wenner was the one who developed an absolutely new form of street art. That is 3D pavement art. He started his career as a graphic artist but after moving to Italy he worked on a new technique. Wenner attracted the attention of the entire world with his remarkable 3D artwork and he also inspired a future generation of 3D pavement street artists.

E)Banksy is probably the most famous English street artist who has already become a legendary figure. It’s still true that no one knows who the person really is. However, his works are exhibited in galleries across the world. An American magazine even named him among the top most influential people in the world. However, he was the only one whose photo the magazine could not publish.

F)The motivations and ideas that inspire street artists are as different as the artists themselves. Some street artists, by creating certain works, want to draw attention to social and political problems. For other artists, street art is just a form of self-expression. And there are those who enjoy the challenge and risks which are connected with working illegally in some city areas.

G)Traditional graffiti has recently been used as a successful method for advertising. Lots of companies agree that traditional advertising on city streets is too boring and common so many people simply ignore it. However, graffiti adverts catch your attention, creating a memorable image. Big companies find this quite useful and try to include more elements of graffiti in their advertising campaigns.

1)Historical facts

2)Different reasons for drawing 
in the street

3)A street art exhibition

4)A commercial effect

5)An innovative method

6)An unknown artist

7)The meaning of the term

8) Keeping their names secret

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A)For tourists coming to China, visiting Shanghai is a must. Shanghai is the largest city not only in China but in the world, too. About twenty-three million people live there! The city has always attracted people looking for a new life and business opportunities. Lots of Americans, Japanese, Koreans, French, Russians, and Germans live there permanently. Like most multinational cities, Shanghai accepts all cultures to produce a new type of a global culture.

B)To keep up with the city’s rhythm, tourists may use the metro system, which is cheap and very efficient. The Shanghai metro is fast and modern. It covers the whole city and is known as the biggest metro in the world. Stations and trains are perfectly clean and well-equipped. Monitors show arrival and departure time and business adverts, and give information about Shanghai sights and events in many languages.

C)If you love shopping, you will be glad to get lost in Shanghai for a couple of days, especially in Nanjing Road. This street houses a great number of prestigious shops, restaurants, and night clubs. There is no traffic here, which is very convenient for people. The shop assistants are very helpful and tourists are very welcome. In the evening the street looks absolutely magical with colourful lights.

D)Another iconic landmark of the city is the embankment of the River Huangpu, the Bund. It is famous for its classical European buildings. There are more than fifty large buildings on the Bund. They are built in different styles such as Gothic, Romanesque or Baroque and others. In spite of this great variety, the buildings stand together in perfect harmony.  The constructions in this part of the city remind people of those in New York, Chicago, London, Moscow and ten thousand other cities.

E)Among the many monuments in Shanghai, the monument to Alexander Pushkin is special. First built in 1937, the monument was ruined and restored twice throughout its history. Now it stands at a road intersection. Specialists from both China and Russia took part in its construction. It is devoted to the greatest poet of all time and also highlights the friendly relationship between the two countries.

F)The Shanghai climate is generally mild and humid, with four distinct seasons — a pleasant, warm spring, a hot, rainy summer, a comfortable, cool autumn and an overcast, cold winter. The location makes the city really wet — it rains for about one third of the year. From late August to mid-September, typhoons may happen. The hottest time comes in July and August, the coldest — from late January to early February. The spring is recommended as the best time to visit Shanghai.

G)Naturally, if you visit the city, you have a chance to try authentic Shanghai cuisine, which is very diverse. It offers dishes made of fresh meat, chicken, vegetables and various, seafood such as fish, shrimps and crabs. The dishes may taste hot and spicy, sweet and bitter. It really differs from European cuisine but Europeans usually enjoy it very much, as well as the atmosphere of the authentic national restaurants. 

1)Seasons and weather

2)The most convenient transport

 3)Local food

4)Multicultural community

5)World business centre

6)Links with Russian culture

7)Diverse architecture

8) A paradise for shopaholics

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A)Jeans are one of fashion’s most long enduring trends. Cowboys wear them but so do supermodels, farmers, presidents and housewives. Ask any group of people why they wear jeans and you will get a range of answers. For some they’re comfortable and easy – for others they’re trendy and cool. Jeans mean different things to different people, but they are popular everywhere.

B)Americans do not have a national folk dress with a long tradition. Blue jeans are probably the most recognisable article of American clothing. They have been part of American life for over 125 years. Blue denim jeans became not only an expression of American fashion but also an element of American identity known around the world.

C)Jeans were first designed as trousers for farmers and miners in the states of the American West. They quickly grew popular with common people, including cowboys, factory employees and railroad builders. The new trousers were made from a very strong material which did not wear out easily. However, at the same time jeans were very practical and comfortable to wear.

D)Pockets were the weak point of the miners’ clothes – they easily tore away from the jeans. A man called Jacob Davis had the idea of using metal rivets (fasteners) to hold the pockets and the jeans together so that they wouldn’t tear. Davis wanted to patent his idea, but he didn’t have enough money, so he offered Levi Strauss a deal if Strauss paid for the patent. Strauss accepted and started making jeans.

E)By the middle of the twentieth century, these heavy cotton trousers were a symbol of opposition for young artists and writers. College students started to wear them to show they were against the Vietnam War. The new trousers were banned in American schools from coast to coast and sometimes in theatres and cinemas.

F)Jeans are good because they don’t show the dirt. You can easily go a month without washing them and they don’t look shocking. They don’t need to be washed as often as other trousers and you don’t need to iron them. What’s more, because of the strong material you can wear your favorite jeans for years. Even the occasional hole or spot doesn’t spoil them at all.

G)In the 30s and 40s many people began to spend their spare time watching movies where adventurous cowboys rode horses, fought bad guys and wore blue jeans. The actors made jeans popular in movies and everyone wanted to wear them. Young people wished to imitate the casual “cowboyish” look they saw in films, and they began to wear jeans as casual wear.

1)Good for everyone

2)Easy to care for

3)Part of culture

4)Screen fashion

5)An innovative idea

6)Working clothes

7)Jeans’ labels

8) Clothes to protest

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A)Young people often worry about the style and functions of mobile phones. However, today companies present more models for people who are over 50 or 60 years old. They need a mobile phone with large buttons, so that they can dial numbers without glasses. The menu is also simple. It really doesn’t matter if the phone has a camera or the Internet. For them, less is more.

B)Today, when friends meet in a café, they put their mobile phones in the middle of the table. They aren’t allowed to touch them at all. If someone does it and answers the phone, they have to pay for everybody. Sounds fun, right? The idea is to make people concentrate on a real conversation with each other instead of using their mobiles all the time.

C)Visitors of theatres and cinemas often complain that mobile phones ring during performances. The city government of New York passed a new act. It is now forbidden to use mobile phones in places, like theaters, libraries, museums, galleries, and cinemas. Those who don’t switch off their mobiles will have to pay $50.

D)With mobile phones we can contact anyone, anywhere, any time. Scientists say that some people are so used to mobiles that they can’t go to the kitchen without them. They are in panic if they leave them at home or lose. It has become a habit to have a mobile everywhere. People depend on mobile phones so much that doctors have started worrying. They say it may be a thing similar to drugs.

E)Throwing mobile phones is an international sport that started in Finland in 2000. Traditionally participants throw mobile phones over their shoulders. The person, who throws farthest, wins. There’s also freestyle throwing. In this contest sportsmen should throw a mobile in a beautiful and creative way.

F)In 2010 a young girl from China made a song using only her mobile phone. She wrote it without any guitars, pianos, drums. She used different functions of her mobile. It took her several days to record the song. Later she made a video of it and put the video on the Internet, where over a million people watched it. She sent the song to the Apple company and suggested using it in their advertisements.

G)Today’s mobile phones can already send e-mails, surf the Internet, and keep you in touch with friends. Tomorrow’s phones are like helpful secretaries. In a few years you’ll see that they know your habits and can advise you what to cook for dinner. They will remind you where to go and what present to buy.

        1)A new music instrument

2)The latest fashion

3)A mobile for grandma

4)Phone addiction

5)A strange competition

6)A law against mobiles

7)Back to real-life communication

8) Digital personal assistants

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A)Edinburgh Tattoo takes place every year in August in the capital of Scotland. It is an event when military music is played by different bands from all over the world. It also includes traditional dances, bagpipe melodies, songs and a horse parade. All this is accompanied by the sounds of national Scottish music.

B)Using music can make the learning process more enjoyable and effective. You can introduce a new topic with music. It may be a great way to improve vocabulary and make students start thinking in the right direction. If students are doing a grammar exercise, you may play some music in the background, and this will help them concentrate.

C)The performance Lady Gaga gave at Manchester was called «The Monster Ball». It was a really strong and loud concert, consisting of four parts. The singer changed costumes 15 times. The «special» effects included a big sea monster and a grand piano which was burnt to pieces. The audience was just going crazy with every new song, it was no doubt a thrilling performance.

D)Are words important in a song? Some people say they don’t matter much. A song is music and you enjoy listening to the melody and don’t pay attention to words. On the other hand, a musician expresses himself through words, so they also matter. The words give meaning to a song and touch people’s feelings.

E)The most common song for English speakers on New Year’s eve is «Auld Lang Syne». When the clock strikes midnight, people join their hands and start singing. However, few of them remember that it’s an old Scottish song first published by the poet Robert Burns. The Scots also sing it on January 25th when they celebrate Burns’ birthday.

F)It’s typical to use music in advertising on radio and television. A lot of companies have jingles. They are short songs or tunes that attract customers. A jingle is quick to remember and usually has very simple words. The melody should be easy to sing and cheerful. The jingle must give a positive image of the company. A good example of it is McDonalds’ «I’m lovin’ it».

G)»We Are the Champions» is a ballad performed by the British group «Queen». It has become one of the most famous and widely used songs. It is also regularly played to celebrate sports victories. The song can be heard in many films, video games, cartoons, TV programmes. It was named the world’s favourite song in 2005.

1)The song of the winners

2)An annual music festival

3)Music of the future

4)Two sides of the same coin

5)An impressive show

6)Music in the classroom

7)The old music hit

8) Music for advert

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A)The first winners of the Olympic Games got free food and housing for the whole lives. They were mentioned in poems and well-known all over Greece. Sculptors even built statues of the competitors. Everyone respected and admired the winners. In short, the victory in the competitions made the man a national hero and all the little children wanted to be like him.

B)Olympia was chosen as the place of the Games because it was a peaceful and neutral area. There the ancient Greeks praised their most important God – Zeus. Another factor was that it had a beautiful green valley. It was very suitable for all kinds of sports competitions. Also people could easily get to Olympia because there were two rivers nearby. It was impossible to find a better place anywhere else in Greece.

C)The Olympiads were named in honor of the runner who came first in the stadium race. For example, the Olympiad of Dionis. So the years after this Olympiad were named as the first, the second, the third or the fourth year since the Olympiad of Dionis. The early historians used this system to give dates to important events.

D)The Olympic Museum was founded in 1993 in Switzerland. It has a big collection of pieces connected with the Olympic movement. It also has the largest number of books and documents about the Games in the world. No wonder the place is one of the main tourist attractions. The museum is surrounded by a park with wonderful works of art based on a sporting theme.

E)The modern Olympics began in 1894. Baron Pierre de Coubertin, a Frenchman decided to bring back the ancient Greek tradition. He wanted to begin a sports festival to celebrate health, youth and peace. The first modern Olympiad took place in Athens in 1896. Since then the Olympic Games have been held every four years with two exceptions because of the two world wars.

F)The Olympic Games traditionally start with the “Parade of the Nations”. Most of the participating athletes walk out into the stadium. The Greek athletes open the parade and the hosts appear on stadium the last. The name of each country is announced in French and English, the official languages of the Olympic Games, and the language spoken in the country that organizes the Games.

G)The five Olympic rings represent the five main regions of the world – Africa, the Americas, Asia, Europe and Oceana. Every national flag in the world includes one of the five colours, which are blue, yellow, black, green, and red. The rings are connected and there is a reason for it. It’s done to show that the Games are for all nations. All good sportsmen can come and compete against one another in unity.

1)The opening ceremony

2)A great honour

3)The Olympic team

4)The Greek calendar

5)A symbolic meaning

6)A place to visit

7)A new start

8) The best location

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A)The age between 14 and 17 is often considered to be one of the best periods in a person’s life. Grown-ups remember it with excitement and happiness. The wish they were teenagers again. However, most teenagers won’t agree with this point of view if they were asked. They’re sure that they are facing a lot of difficult problems and that’s quite true.

B)Smoking has become one of the most important problems for modern teenagers. About 40 percent of teenagers are attracted by the bright cigarette advertisement. It seems they just don’t realize the harm it does to their health, because advertisements show smoking as something positive. They really believe that smoking will make them look like they’re cool and grown-up.

C)In fact, teenagers have got a lot of work. They’re busy with their studies, household chores, some of them have jobs. They can’t even find a moment to entertain themselves at times. It’s a more serious problem especially for those who are responsible and want to be successful students and good children.

D)The problem number one for most young people is between fathers and sons. All young people want to be independent, they want their parents to listen to their opinion. As for parents, they want to control their children’s lives. At the same time some parents can’t find a common language with their kids and simply don’t pay enough attention to them.

E)They say that all teenagers want to have a lot of money to dress well, to go to theatres, to visit foreign countries, to eat what they want and to buy books. But how can they do all these things? They have to get some money and it’s possible to do it. Some teenagers wash cars, others sell newspapers, help elderly people and babysit.

F)School ages are also very difficult. Children are always stressed because of their marks at school. It seems to teenagers that they do a lot of homework, but mothers and fathers are never satisfied. They want their children to have the highest marks at school. Teenagers do their best, but adults are never happy. They always want more.

G)There are many organizations which unite young people. Teenagers get together because of common interests and beliefs. Members of every organisations have their own attitudes to the world. There are some informal clubs, for example: emos, hippies, panks, and so on. However, some teenagers choose to join more serious groups like Greenpeace.

1)Generation gap

2)Attractive but unhealthy

3)Youth movements and societies

4)Always busy

5)Conflicts with friends

6)Parents’ ambitions

7)Are teenagers happy?

8) They want to earn and spend

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A)Hamleys is the best toyshop in the UK. It has seven floors of toys, games and sweets. The shop assistants often dress up in costumes of famous characters from fairy tales and stories. Because of this the place looks like a magic land. The atmosphere is wonderful, and the shop really has everything young ones could ever want.

B)Harrods, is perhaps London’s most famous department store, named after Charles Harrods, who opened a family grocer’s shop on the site in 1849. The little shop has grown and become a symbol for expensive and glamorous shopping. It contains over 300 departments selling luxury items, from furniture and ladies fashion to sports equipment. Harrods continues to astonish customers from around the world with first-class service and product quality.

C)The Old Umbrella Shop is one of the shops that hasn’t changed from the early twentieth century. Inside it looks exactly as it was years ago. There are old telephones, shelves, shop windows and an umbrella museum. What’s more, it still sells umbrellas and doesn’t want to specialize in anything else. The shop has faithful clients who have been coming there for years.

D)Muara Kuin is an unusual river market in Indonesia. With the sunrise people from local villages arrive here by boat with fresh fruit and vegetables. Buyers get to the market in the same way. Nobody goes on shore, all business is done from boats. If you wish to get a cup of tea, there are special motor boats selling drinks and cookies.

E)The city of Dongguan in China has the world’s largest shopping mall. There are seven zones in it, which are designed to look like world’s cities and regions. In no time you’ll get fromParis to Amsterdam. Take a lift and it will take you from Europe to Canada. There’s even a small river with boats, where you can relax and take a trip after shopping.

F)Hope and Greenwood is a sweet shop in London. It offers traditional British sweets. They were popular in the 50s and 70s. Now you can’t find them anywhere else, because chocolate factories use new modern recipes and ingredients. This shop offers a unique opportunity to try the desserts of the previous century.

G)Oxfam is a chain of shops all over the world, which sells very cheap things. Its aim is to attract shoppers by offering them many second-hand and donated things of good quality. Also anyone can come and bring the books or clothes they no longer need. Oxfam takes everything: from stamps to furniture.

1)Shop and travel

2)They don’t want to change anything

3)A shop for the rich

4)Shopping on water

5)Children’s dreamland

6)Shopping alone

7)A taste from the past

8) Not new but good and cheap

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A)For intelligence, ravens rate up with chimpanzees and dolphins. These birds have the largest brain of any bird species. Ravens can push rocks on people to keep them from climbing to their nests and play dead to scare other ravens away from a delicious meal. If a raven knows another raven is watching, it hides its food. It pretends to put the food in one place but hides it in another.

B)It’s amazing to watch ravens sliding on snow-covered roofs. For entertainment, they also roll down snowy hills. Ravens often play keep-away with other animals like wolves, foxes and dogs. They even make toys—a rare animal behaviour—from sticks, pine cones, golf balls, or rocks to play with each other or by themselves. When they feel bored, they mock other creatures and find it very amusing.

C)According to surveys, the ravens are one of the main reasons why tourists come to see the Tower of London. Nobody knows when the ravens first appeared there but there is a belief that at least six ravens must always remain on the territory of the Tower.  Otherwise, the British Monarchy may fall. To prevent the birds from flying away their wings are clipped every three weeks.

D)In the past, in some cultures, people were truly afraid of these dark birds. In Germany, ravens were considered to be the incarnation of criminals’ souls or sometimes Satan himself. In Sweden, ravens were thought to be the souls of murdered people. And in Denmark, people believed that it was dangerous to look at ravens because you could turn into a raven yourself.

E)Sometimes people find injured ravens and take them home but keeping a raven as a pet is really difficult. These birds require a lot of care, a lot of freedom, and a lot of time. Ravens are wild creatures, and are not pets in the same way as cats and dogs are. If the bird is strong and healthy, it is unfair and cruel to keep it in captivity. In some countries it’s even illegal. So if you really love and admire these birds, enjoy them from a distance!

F)Crows and ravens are often confused with each other because they are both black birds. Even people who are well aware of the differences between the two birds can get confused. You can tell them apart by their voice and differences in their behaviour. Ravens are larger than crows, with thicker beaks, and longer tails. Ravens have a deeper voice than crows.

G)Many poets and writers wrote about ravens in their works. Shakespeare refers to the raven more often than to any other bird. The raven Grip plays an important part in Charles Dickens’ book Barnaby Rudge. Edgar Allan Poe presents the raven as a mystical messenger in his poem The Raven. The wise and sensible raven is also a popular figure in fairy tales.

1)The dark bird of evil

2)A prominent literary character

3)Fun lovers

4)Alike but different

5)The guardians of the country

6)Smart and cunning  

7)Born to be free

8) Favourite diet

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A)How many rubbish bins do you have where you live? In our area there are about 6 of them, each bin for a different kind of rubbish. There are separate containers for glass, cans, paper, textiles, plastic bottles and food products. I’m sure it’s really good because lots of things which we throw away can easily be recycled. It’s time to start caring for our environment.

B)»Please, keep this place clean». This is often written on picnic sites and camping areas in forests. Do we follow the recommendation? We have fun and enjoy the views and then throw away unwanted food, glass, plastic bottles, cans, wrappers and paper. Is that your «thanks» to nature? Make your site or travel route look like nobody was there. Leave no sign of human influence.

C)Before people started destroying the rainforests, they covered 15% of the Earth’s land area. Today, they cover only 6%. In just the last 50 years, one third of the tropical rainforests have been destroyed. If people don’t stop, global warming will become more severe, rare ecosystems will be destroyed, we’ll breathe polluted air and the climate will be changed forever.

D)In the first years of the 21st century there were lots of discoveries in the animal world. But in the past 10 years some animals have completely disappeared from earth. You can no longer see a golden toad, a baiji dolphin or a black rhino. It is frightening that today the process is going faster and faster. These days about 5000 animals could disappear at any time.

E)More than 100 million animals every year suffer and die from inhuman drug, food or cosmetic tests, biology lessons, medical training exercises and other experiments. It seems that we have no pity for them. Have you ever thought that we hurt them? If there isn’t testing on people there shouldn’t be testing on animals either.

F)For my birthday this year I got an unusual and unexpected invitation from a friend to plant a tree. It was a thrilling experience. On the day of the event I chose a tree myself, got some professional advice and did the job. I have never felt such joy. I know my «personal» tree will be part of a small park in the district, a place of beauty for people of all ages to enjoy.

G)The Green School Awards are for quality in environmental education. You can enter the competition as a whole school, a class, a team or an individual. The main task is to make a report on any topic mentioned on our website. You can present it in any form: a scrapbook, a DVD, a website, and so on. Each winner will get a cheque for £700.

1)Why worry about trees?

2)Choose: what goes where?

3)Cruel business

4)Dead or endangered

5)A green society

6)Don’t leave rubbish behind!

7)A green present

8) Become green and get the prize!

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A)Everybody remembers what school smells and sounds like. It may seem unimportant but research results suggest that smells and sounds can influence learning ability and creativity. Some schools are now introducing noises, music and even smell into the classroom. The aim is to see which of these factors can improve students’ grades.

B)It’s obvious that the constant sounds of traffic, airports and police sirens are a part of a busy city. Numerous studies have focused on the combined effect of aircraft and road traffic sounds on reading ability and memory.  It was found out that children from schools near big airports reported annoyance and showed less success at exams, which proves that the aircraft noise is the most harmful type of machinery noise.

  C)The International Noise Awareness Day was started by the American Centre for Hearing and Communication in 1995. The aim of this day, which takes place every year in April, is to raise awareness among the people of the noise problem and the risks it makes. On that day people are asked to turn off noise sources such as TV sets and auto engines for a few hours and to enjoy the silence.

D)There is no one best colour, some are just better than others in different situations. The design of the classroom is very important, too. It should be nice and pleasant and help students to focus on learning – remember about it when you paint the walls! Generally, light blue and purple have a calming effect on learners. Warm tones like peach and light yellow provide a relaxing atmosphere that is good for learning too. However, most physiologists say that red, white, black and brown should be avoided in the classroom.

E)However, when students do tasks in groups or discuss something, noise is unavoidable. Sometimes the noise distracts other students. To prevent this, a traffic light system has been introduced. A large set of traffic lights, made of coloured paper, is placed in the classroom. When the noise is acceptable, the green light is on. When it gets too loud, the yellow light is put on. Changing to the red light means the end of activities or complete silence.

F)On the other hand, some noises stimulate creativity, but the sound should be neither too high nor too low.  There was a special experiment held in an office. While working, the people were listening to different melodies, played at different levels. It was observed that the most original projects were created when the songs and compositions were played at a medium level. Low and high levels, on the other hand, damaged creativity.

G)According to Professor Shields, listening to classical or calm music helps creative learning.  This conclusion is not really new. For a long time, teachers and coaches have been using quiet melodies to inspire their students and stimulate their imagination. This is particularly useful in art classes, where students learn to create pieces of art like pictures, sculptures and hand-made articles.

1)Some time without noise

2)Harmful background noise

3)Special effects for better results

4)A way to reduce noise pollution

5)Colours for the classroom

6)Music in the classroom    

7)Music for relaxation

8) Different effects of music

ОГЭ Английский язык задание №9 Демонстрационный вариант 2018 Про­чи­тай­те тек­сты и уста­но­ви­те со­от­вет­ствие между тек­ста­ми А–G и за­го­лов­ка­ми 1–8. В ответ за­пи­ши­те цифры, в по­ряд­ке, со­от­вет­ству­ю­щем бук­вам. Ис­поль­зуй­те каж­дую цифру толь­ко один раз. В за­да­нии есть один лиш­ний за­го­ло­вок.

1. The scientific explanation
5. Places without rainbows
2. The real shape
6. A personal vision
3. A lucky sign
7. A bridge between worlds
4. Some tips
8. Impossible to catch

A. Two people never see the same rainbow. Each person sees a different one. It
happens because the raindrops are constantly moving so the rainbow is always
changing too. Each time you see a rainbow it is unique and it will never be the
same! In addition, everyone sees colours differently according to the light and
how their eyes interpret it.
B. A rainbow is an optical phenomenon that is seen in the atmosphere. It appears
in the sky when the sun’s light is reflected by the raindrops. A rainbow always
appears during or immediately after showers when the sun is shining and the
air contains raindrops. As a result, a spectrum of colours is seen in the sky. It
takes the shape of a multicoloured arc.
C. Many cultures see the rainbow as a road, a connection between earth and
heaven (the place where God lives). Legends say that it goes below the earth at
the horizon and then comes back up again. In this way it makes a permanent
link between what is above and below, between life and death. In some myths
the rainbow is compared to a staircase connecting earth to heaven.
D. We all believe that the rainbow is arch-shaped. The funny thing is that it’s
actually a circle. The reason we don’t see the other half of the rainbow is
because we cannot see below the horizon. However, the higher we are above
the ground, the more of the rainbow’s circle we can see. That is why, from an
airplane in flight, a rainbow will appear as a complete circle with the shadow of
the airplane in the centre.
E. In many cultures there is a belief that seeing a rainbow is good. Legends say
that if you dig at the end of a rainbow, you’ll find a pot of gold. Rainbows are
also seen after a storm, showing that the weather is getting better, and there is
hope after the storm. This is why they are associated with rescue and good
fortune. If people happen to get married on such a day, it is said that they will
enjoy a very happy life together.

F. You can never reach the end of a rainbow. A rainbow is all light and water. It is
always in front of you while your back is to the sun. As you move, the rainbow
that your eye sees moves as well and it will always ‘move away’ at the same
speed that you are moving. No matter how hard you try, a rainbow will always
be as far away from you as it was before you started to move towards it.
G. To see a rainbow you have to remember some points. First, you should be
standing with the sun behind you. Secondly, the rain should be in front of you.
The most impressive rainbows appear when half of the sky is still dark with
clouds and the other half is clear. The best time to see a rainbow is on a warm
day in the early morning after sunrise or late afternoon before sunset. Rainbows
are often seen near waterfalls and fountains.
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ОГЭ Английский язык задание №9 Демонстрационный вариант 2017

1. Traditional delivery         2. Loss of popularity          3. Money above privacy
4. The best-known newspapers         5. Focus on different readers         6. The successful competitor
7. Size makes a difference        8. Weekend reading

A. As in many other European countries, Britain’s main newspapers are losing their readers. Fewer and fewer people are buying broadsheets and tabloids at the newsagent’s. In the last quarter of the twentieth century people became richer and now they can choose other forms of leisure activity. Also, there is the Internet which is a convenient and inexpensive alternative source of news.

B. The ‘Sunday papers’ are so called because that is the only day on which they are published. Sunday papers are usually thicker than the dailies and many of them have six or more sections. Some of them are ‘sisters’ of the daily newspapers. It means they are published by the same company but not on week days.

C. Another proof of the importance of ‘the papers’ is the morning ‘paper round’. Most newsagents organise these. It has become common that more than half of the country’s readers get their morning paper brought to their door by a teenager. The boy or girl usually gets up at around 5:30 a.m. every day including Sunday to earn a bit of pocket money.

D. The quality papers or broadsheets are for the better educated readers. They devote much space to politics and other ‘serious’ news. The popular papers, or tabloids, sell to a much larger readership. They contain less text and a lot more pictures. They use bigger headlines and write in a simpler style of English. They concentrate on ‘human interest stories’ which often means scandal.

E. Not so long ago in Britain if you saw someone reading a newspaper you could tell what kind it was without even checking the name. It was because the quality papers were printed on very large pages called ‘broadsheet’. You had to have expert turning skills to be able to read more than one page. The tabloids were printed on much smaller pages which were much easier to turn.

F. The desire to attract more readers has meant that in the twentieth century sometimes even the broadsheets in Britain look rather ‘popular’. They give a lot of coverage to scandal and details of people’s private lives. The reason is simple. What matters most for all newspaper publishers is making a profit. They would do anything to sell more copies.

G. If you go into any newsagent’s shop in Britain you will not find only newspapers. You will also see rows and rows of magazines for almost every imaginable taste. There are specialist magazines for many popular pastimes. There are around 3,000 of them published in the country and they are widely read, especially by women. Magazines usually list all the TV and radio programmes for the coming week and many British readers prefer them to newspapers.

Текст A B C D E F G
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1.Living through ages 2. Influenced by fashion 3. Young and energetic
4. Old and beautiful 5. Still a mystery 6. A lot to see and to do
7. Welcome to students 8. Fine scenery

A. Ireland is situated on the western edge of Europe. It is an island of great beauty with rugged mountains, blue lakes, ancient castles, long sandy beaches and picturesque harbors. The climate is mild and temperate throughout the year. Ireland enjoys one of the cleanest environments in Europe. Its unspoilt countryside provides such leisure ac¬tivities as hiking, cycling, golfing and horse-riding.
B. Over the past two decades, Ireland has become one of the top destinations for En¬glish language learning — more than 100,000 visitors come to Ireland every year to study English. One quarter of Ireland’s population is under 25 years of age and Dublin acts as a magnet for young people looking for quality education. The Irish are relaxed, friendly, spontaneous, hospitable people and have a great love of conversation. So, there is no better way of learning a language than to learn it in the country where it is spoken.
C. Dublin sits in a vast natural harbor. Such a protected harbor appealed to the first settlers 5,000 years ago and traces of their culture have been found around Dublin and its coast. But it was not until the Vikings came sailing down the coast in the middle 9th cen¬tury that Dublin became an important town. Next to arrive were the Anglo-Norman ad¬venturers. This was the beginning of the long process of colonization that dictated Ire¬land’s development over the next seven hundred years.
D. Now Dublin is changing fast and partly it ’s thanks to its youthful population over 50 percent are under the age of twenty-five and that makes the city come alive. To¬day Dublin is a city full of charm with a dynamic cultural life, small enough to be friend¬ly, yet cosmopolitan in outlook. This is the culture where the heritage of ancient days brings past and present together.
E. In general, cultural life of Dublin is very rich and you can enjoy visiting different museums, art galleries and exhibitions. But for those looking for peace and quiet there are two public parks in the centre of the city: St. Stephen’s Green and Merrion Square.
The city centre has several great shopping areas depending on your budget as well as nu¬merous parks and green areas for relaxing in. Dublin is also a sports-m ad city and wheth¬er you are playing or watching, it has everything for the sports enthusiast.
F. Step dances are the creation of Irish dancing m asters of the late 18th century.
Dancing m asters would often travel from town to town, teaching basic dancing steps to those interested and able to pay for them . Their appearance was motivated by a desire to learn the ‘fashionable’ dance styles which were coming from France. The dance m asters often changed these dances to fit the traditional music and, in doing so, laid the basis for much of today’s traditional Irish dance — ceili, step, and set.
G. St Patrick is known as the patron saint of Ireland. True, he was not a born Irish.
But he has become an integral part of the Irish heritage, mostly through his service across Ireland of the 5th century. Patrick was born in the second half of the 4th century AD. There are different views about the exact year and place of his birth . According to one school of opinion, he was born about 390 A.D., while the other school says it is about 373 AD. Again, his birth place is said to be in either Scotland or Roman England. So, though Patricius was his Romanicized name, he became later known as Patrick.
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Источник: ОГЭ 2017 АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК Л.М.Гудкова О.В.Терентьева


1.Thanks to new technology 2. A custom for a sweet-tooth 3. The upside down world
4. Nice for people in love 5. Happy next year 6. Not allowed for some time
7. Watch out or give the money 8. Christmas is coming

A. Houses are decorated with colored paper ribbons and chains. Holly with red ber¬ries is put on the walls and looks very colorful. A piece of mistletoe (a plant) is hung from the ceiling. It is said to be lucky to kiss under the mistletoe hanging from the ceil¬ing. As you can understand, a lot of people who may not usually kiss each other take the chance given by a piece of mistletoe!
B. One of the delicacies the British have enjoyed for almost 900 years is the mince pie.
This is a sort of small cake with a delicious mixture of spices and fruit. It was the Cru¬saders who introduced it when they brought back new aromatic spices from the Holy Land. In the 17th century Oliver Cromwell tried to ban the eating of mince pies (as well as singing of carols) — but people continued to eat (and sing) in secret.
C. Christmas Day is a family day when families try to be together. In past years, the Queen has broadcast a radio message from her study at Sandringham House. Since 1959 she has been recording her message every year some weeks before Christmas, so it could be broadcast on Christmas Day by radio in all parts of the British Commonwealth.
D. In the USA many towns have a public tree place in some square or park or outside the town hall. This custom began first in America when an illuminated tree was set up in 1909 in Pasadena, California. Now we can observe the ceremony of putting up the Christmas tree in Rockefeller Center in the heart of New York City, as well as in the main square of every town in the country. The nation’s main Christmas tree is set up in Washington, D.C. on the parade ground near the White House. A few days before Christ¬mas the President of the United States presses a button to light the tree. This is the sig¬nal for lighting trees across the land.
E. The custom of breaking a wishbone (of a chicken or turkey) comes from the Ro¬mans who used them for fortune telling. They examined the bones of sacrificed birds, which they thought were messengers from their gods. Looking for signs of future events, they broke the wishbone and the person with the longest piece could make a wish which may bring him luck or good fortune.
F. Christmas in Australia is not like anywhere else since December is one of the hot¬test months of the year. But the Australians have a great time anyway. Those who live near the coast go to the beach on Christmas day. They have a swim, play cricket or vol¬leyball, surf or just sit around with family and friends enjoying Christmas dinner. Santa Claus arrives on a surfboard — quite a change from sliding down a chimney!
G. Christmas caroling is particularly popular in Wales where it is often accompanied by a harp. In some rural areas a villager is chosen to be the Mari Lawyed. This person travels around the town dressed in white and carrying a horse’s skull on a long pole. Anyone given the ‘bite’ by the horse’s jaws must pay a fine.

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Источник: ОГЭ 2017 АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК Л.М.Гудкова О.В.Терентьева


1.A two-language melting pot 2. Born of hardships 3. Enough land for both
4. Failures and successes 5. Native tribes 6. Difficult life
7. Back to the roots 8. The birth of the new nation

A. Long before Europeans first came to America, many groups of Indians lived there.
They hunted forest animals for food and clothing. They gathered berries and nuts in the forests. Many groups fished in the rivers and streams that flowed through the forests.
Most anthropologists agree that the North American Indians migrated over the Bering Sea from Siberia, 10,000 to 30,000 years ago.
B. Later, in 1534 the French king sent Jacques C artier to find a water route to the Far East. C artier made several voyages to the new World, and he tried to establish a colony on the banks of the St. Lawrence River (where Montreal is located today) but he failed.
In 1608, Samuel de Champlain built the first perm anent French settlement in Canada.
He named it Quebec.
C. Both nations began to expand in the New World. English colonists began to settle along the Atlantic Coast. The French began to explore and build forts in the region south of the Great Lakes in the valleys of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers.
D. So Great Britain and France were fighting for control of Canada until 1763. As a result, France signed a treaty giving up all its claims to land on the continent of North America. The French who were living in Canada did not return to France. They continued to follow the customs and religion of their native land. They became ‘French Canadians’.КНТ 3
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E. Since that time, millions of immigrants from the United States, Scotland, Ireland, England, Germany, Russia, Poland, Scandinavia, and other countries of the world have moved to Canada. Today about one third of the Canadians speak French and about two thirds speak English. English and French are both official languages of Canada.
F. Since the 1950s, there has been a remarkable rebirth of Indian culture. Native lan¬guage, culture and history programmes have been instituted in schools. Cultural centres are flourishing, and traditional practices and beliefs are increasingly being used to com¬bat alcoholism and drug problems. Indian elders are once again playing a vital role and linking generations.
G. Canadian sport is indebted to Indian culture for the toboggan, snowshoe, lacrosse stick and canoe. Many Indian games had utilitarian purposes related to survival, e.g. wrestling, archery, spear throw ing, foot and canoe racing. Some of them initially were meant to prepare youngsters for cooperative existence in a cruel environment

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Источник: ОГЭ 2017 АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК Л.М.Гудкова О.В.Терентьева


1. The history of a popular drink 2. Healthy drink 3. They want it quick and easy
4. Not a drink 5. Some changes in British diet 6. Some changes in British tastes
7. Making tea process 8. Helpful hint

A. British attitude to what they eat daily has changed a lot over the past twenty years. In the 1990s each person ate about 352 gram s of ‘red ’ meat each week, but now it’s less than 250 gram s. People prefer chicken and fresh fish. And more people are interest¬ed in healthy eating these days. In 1988 the national average was 905 gram s of fruit and fruit juices each week, but now i t ’s nearly 2,000 gram s.
B. Twenty years ago, British people usually ate at home. They only went out for a meal at special times, like for somebody’s birthday. Today when both parents are work¬ing, they cannot cook large meals in the evenings. ‘Ready-made’ meals from supermar¬kets and Marks and Spencer and ‘take-aw ay’ meals from fast food restaurants are very popular. If you are feeling tired or lazy, you can even phone a local restaurant. They will bring the food to your house.
C. In the past, traditional steakhouses were very popular places, but now more and more people prefer foreign food. Every British town has Indian and Chinese restaurants, and large towns have restaurants from many other countries too.
D. The British population drinks a lot of tea. Tea — mostly green tea from China — came to Britain in the late 1500s. But it was only for the very rich. It became cheap¬er about three hundred years later, when it was planted in India and later in Ceylon (Sri Lanka). People from all classes started drinking it. But some people thought that too much tea was bad for their health. So they started putting milk in it to make it healthier!
E. Afternoon tea is a small meal. Now most ordinary British families do not have time for afternoon tea at home, but in the past it was a tradition. It became popular when rich ladies invited their friends to their houses for an afternoon cup of tea. They started of¬fering their visitors sandwiches and cakes too. Soon everybody was enjoying this excit¬ing new meal.
F. If someone in England asks you ‘Would you like a cup?’ they are asking if you would like a cup of tea. If someone says, ‘Let me be m other’ or ‘Shall I be m other?’ they are offering to pour out the tea from the teapot.
G. Most people today use teabags to make tea, but some serious drinkers make tea in the traditional way. First the water is boiled. Then some of the boiled water is used to warm the teapot. Then the tealeaves are put in the teapot. Then the boiling water is add¬ed. Then the pot is left for five minutes under a ‘teacosy’. Finally, the tea is served in delicate cups with saucers.

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Источник: ОГЭ 2017 АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК Л.М.Гудкова О.В.Терентьева


1.Absolute honesty 2.The cost of education 3. Just choosing 4. Inform al teaching
5. Another application 6. Optional teaching 7. Needed move 8. Uncertain parents

A. At the beginning of your last year at school you receive an application form . On this form you choose up to five universities that you would like to go to. The form is sent to those universities with information from your school about you and your academic results. If the universities are interested in your application, they will ask you to attend an interview and will offer you a place. Any offer, however, is only conditional at this stage.
B. А-level examinations are the exams taken at the end of your time at school. So, when a university makes an offer, it will tell you the minimum grades that you must get on your а-level exam. If you don’t get those grades, then you will not be accepted and you will have to apply again to another university.
C. Like all British universities, Oxford is a state university not a private one.
Students are selected on the basis of their results in the national examination or the special Oxford entrance examination. There are many applicants and nobody can get a place by paying. Successful candidates are admitted to a special college of the university: that will be their home for the next three years and for a longer period if they would like to go on studying for a postgraduate degree.
D. An undergraduate will spend an hour a week with his or her ‘tutor’; perhaps in the company of one other student. Each of them will have written an essay for the tutor, which serves as the basis for discussion, arguments, the exposition of ideas and academic methods. At the end of the hour the students go away with a new essay and a list of books that might be helpful in preparing for the essay.
E. Lectures and seminars are other kinds of teaching; popular lecturers can attract audience from several faculties, while others may find themselves speaking to two or three loyal students or maybe to no-one at all. In practice, most students at Oxford are enthusiastic about academic life and many of them work for days on each essay, sometimes sitting up through the night with a wet towel round their heads.
F. Most 18 and 19 year-olds in Britain are rather independent people, and when the time comes to pick a college, choose one as far away from home as possible. So, many students in northern and Scottish universities come from England and vice versa. It’s very unusual for students to live at home. Although parents may be a little sad to see this happen, they usually have to approve of this step and see it as a necessary part of becoming an adult.
G. Students all over the world have to work for their education. A college education in the USA is expensive. The costs are so high that most families begin to save for their children’s education when their children are the babies. Even so, many young people cannot afford to pay the expenses of full-time college work. They do not have enough money to pay for school costs. Tuition for attending the university, books for classes, and dormitory costs are high. There are other expenses such as chemistry and biology laboratories fees and special student activity fees.

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Источник: ОГЭ 2017 АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК Л.М.Гудкова О.В.Терентьева

Примерные варианты ответа к заданию 3 устной части ОГЭ по английскому языку из открытого банка заданий ФИПИ

  1. Holidays

Task 3. You are going to give a talk about your school holidays. You will have to start in 1.5 minutes and speak for not more than 2 minutes (10–12 sentences). Remember to say:

  • when you have school holidays;

  • what school holidays you would make longer, and why;

  • what you enjoy doing during your school holidays;

  • what your attitude to school holidays is.

You have to talk continuously.

I’m going to tell you about my school holidays. We have four school holidays during a school year. They are: summer, autumn, winter and spring holidays. Summer holidays are the longest. They last three months – June, July and August.

Spring holidays are rather short and I’d like to make them longer because all the students are very tired at the end of the school year. The second reason is that the third term is the longest.

During my school holidays I love walking with my friends, reading books and watching films. In winter I enjoy skating and skiing when the weather is fine. In summer my favourite pastime is swimming in the river or sea and lying in the sun. I also like playing different sports games.

As all the students I love my school holidays. I always look forward to having fun during them.

That’s all I wanted to say. Thanks for listening.

  1. Travelling

Task 3. You are going to give a talk about travelling. You will have to start in 1.5 minutes and speak for not more than 2 minutes (1012 sentences). Remember to say:

  • why people like travelling;

  • what means of transport is the best for travelling, and why;

  • what places in Russia you would like to visit;

  • what your attitude to travelling is.

You have to talk continuously.

-I’m going to tell you about travelling. People like travelling for many reasons. First of all, travelling is cool! Travellers can learn new things and meet interesting people while travelling. Secondly, they want to go sightseeing and see local landscapes. One more reason for travelling is tasting local dishes and collecting souvenirs.

The best means of transport for travelling, in my opinion, is a car because you can stop anywhere you like. You can even sleep in your car if there is no hotel nearby. To my mind it’s the cheapest way of traveling.

As for me, I’d like to visit the most beautiful city in Russia — St. Petersburg and see the Hermitage, one of the world’s largest museums, the Winter Palace, Nevsky Prospect and Petergof. I hope I’ll visit these places soon.

I’m fond of travelling. It’s my favourite pastime during my school holidays.

That’s all I wanted to say. Thanks for listening.